REDUCTION OF HYPERPIGMENTATION BY A. INCISUS EXTRACT 13 not observed at any dorsal skin sites treated with either the nanoemulsion containing the extract or the extract solution during any of the experimental days. CONCLUSIONS Nowadays, botanical extracts are playing an increasingly important role in cosmetics. Together with being used in suitable formulations, the effi cacy of such extracts indicates their role as enhancers. Nanoemulsions are one of the attractive formula options for appli- cation in cosmetics, as their small droplet size can promote penetration of active ingredi- ents into the skin. Our study indicates that a formulated nanoemulsion containing A. incisus extract has the potential for application in skin depigmentation. It could act as a remedy for hyperpig- mentation in UVB-induced hyperpigmentation. Side effects such as permanent depig- mentation and edema were not found during application for six weeks. However, further clinical studies of the formulated product should be performed to ensure its effi cacy and safety before marketing in the future. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Financial and facility support from Thailand Research Fund–Master Research Grants (TRF-MAG) and the Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC), Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, is gratefully acknowledged. REFERENCES (1) A. G. Pandya and I. L. Guevara, Disorders of hyperpigmentation, Dermatol. Clin., 18, 91–98 (2000). (2) N. Lawrence, S. E. Cox, and H. J. Brody, Treatment of melasma with Jessner’s solution versus glycolic acid: A comparison of clinical effi cacy and evaluation of the predictive ability of Wood’s light examina- tion, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 36, 589–593 (1997). (3) P. E. Grimes, Melasma: Etiologic and therapeutic considerations, Arch. Dermatol., 131, 1453–1457 (1995). (4) N. P. Sanchez, M. A. Pathak, S. Sato, T. B. Fitzpatrick, J. L. Sanchez, and M. C. Mihm, Jr., Melasma: A clinical, light microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunofl uorescence study, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 4, 698–710 (1981). (5) P. Donsing, N. Limpeanchob, and J. Viyoch, Effect of Thai breadfruit’s heartwood extract on melano- genesis-inhibitory and antioxidation activities, J. Cosmet. Sci., 59, 41–58 (2008). (6) K. Shimizu, R. Kondo, K. Sakai, S. H. Lee, and H. Sato, The inhibitory components from Artocarpus incisus on melanin biosynthesis, Planta Med., 64, 408–412 (1998). (7) K. Shimizu, R. Kondo, and K. Sakai, The skin-lightening effects of artocarpin on UVB-induced pigmentation, Planta Med., 68, 79–81 (2002). (8) E. J. Windhab, M. Dressler, K. Feigl, P. Fischer, and D. Megias-Alguacil, Emulsion processing: From single drop deformation to design of complex processes and products, Chem. Eng. Sci., 60, 2101–2113 (2005). (9) P. Izquierdo, J. Esquena, T. F. Tadros, C. Dederen, M. J. Garcia, N. Azemar, and C. Solans, Formation and stability of nano-emulsions prepared using the phase inversion temperature method, Langmuir, 18, 26–30 (2002). (10) T. Tadros, R. Izquierdo, J. Esquena, and C. Solans, Formation and stability of nano-emulsions, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 108–109, 303–318 (2004). (11) T. Pitaksuteepong, A. Somsiri, and N. Waranuch, Targeted transfollicular delivery of artocarpin extract from Artocarpus incisus by means of microparticles, Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm., 67, 639–645 (2007).
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