242 JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF COSMETIC CHEMISTS (9) (10) (11) (15) (3) B. Idson, Percutaneous absorption, J. Pharm. Sci., 64, 901-924, 1975. (4) J. N. Twist and J. L. Zatz, Influence of solvents on paraben permeation through idealized skin model membranes, J, Soc. Cosmet. Chem., 37, 429-444, 1986. (5) J. N. Twist and J. L. Zatz, Membrane-solvent-solute interaction in a model permeation system, J. Pharm. Sci., 77, 536-540, 1988. (6) J. N. Twist and J. L. Zatz, A model for alcohol-enhanced permeation through polydimethylsiloxane membranes, J. Pharm. Sci., in press. (7) S. DelTerzo, C. R. Behl, R. A. Nash, N.H. Bellantone, and A. W. Malik, Evaluation of the nude rat as a model: Effect of short term freezing and alkyl chain length on permeability of n-alkanols and water, J. Soc, Cosmet. Chem., 37, 297-307, 1986. (8) E. Vander Merwe, C. Ackerman, and C. J. Van Wyk, Factors affecting the permeability of urea and water through nude mouse skin in-vitro. I. Temperature and time of hydration, lnt. J. Pharm., 44, 71-74, 1988. J. R. Bond and B. W. Barry, Limitations of hairless mouse skin as a model for in-vitro permeation studies through human skin: Hydration damage, J. Invest. Dermatol., 90, 486-489, 1988. K. B. Sloan, S. A. Koch, K. G. Siver, F. P. Flowers, Use of solubility parameters of drug and vehicle to predict flux through skin,J. Invest. Dermatol., 87, 244-252, 1986. R. J. Scheuplein and I. H. Blank, Mechanism of percutaneous absorption. IV. Penetration of non- electrolytes (alcohols) from aqueous solutions and from pure liquids, J. Invest, Dermatol., 60, 286-296, 1973. (12) B. W. Barry, D. Southwell, and R. Woodford, Optimization of bioavailability of topical steroids: Penetration enhancers under occlusion, J. Invest. Dermatol., 82, 49-54, 1984. (13) J. L. Zatz and U. G. Dalvi, Evaluation of solvent-skin interaction in percutaneous absorption, J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem., 34, 327-334, 1983. (14) K. Knutson, R. O. Potts, D. B. Guzek, G. M. Golden, J. E. McKie, W. J. Lambert, and W. I. Higuchi, Macro- and molecular physical-chemical considerations in understanding drug transport in the stratum comeurn. J. Control. Rel., 2, 67-87, 1985. T. Kai, V. Mak, R. O. Potts, and R. H. Guy, Mechanism of skin penetration enhancement: Effect of n-alkanols on the permeability barrier. Presented at the 15th International Symposium on Controlled Release of Bioactive Materials, Abstract 124, Basel, Switzerland, 1988.
j. Soc. Cosmet. Chem., 40, 243-249 (July/August 1989) Abstracts The Annual Scientific Meetings and Seminars of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists are important venues for informing the participants about the state of the art and recent technical advances in the field of Cosmetic Science. To provide broader dissemination of that information, the Publi- cations Committee has decided to publish abstracts of the technical presentations made at these Meetings and Seminars in theJournaL--The Editor. Annual Scientific Meeting December 7-8, 1989 The New York Hilton, New York City James Akerson (Clairol, Inc.), Chairman, 1989 SCIENTIFIC SESSION A ADVANCES IN SURFACE SCIENCE I A short walk through surface chemistry: View- points on cosmetics Paul Becher, Paul Becher Associates Ltd., P.O. Box 7335, Wilmington, DE 19803 A preliminary discussion of the theoretical back- ground of surface chemistry, with particular atten- tion to the behavior of surface-active agents, is fol- lowed by some thoughts on how some recent devel- opments (in, for example, lipid behavior and micellization) can be connected with practical ap- plications (for example, skin mildness). Micelies, solubilization, liquid crystals, lipo- somes, and skin structure modelling Stig E. Friberg, Department of Chemistry, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13676 Surfactants adsorb strongly to interfaces, a phenom- enon of importance for emulsion and foam stability. In addition, they spontaneously form their own in- terfaces within one-phase parts or systems. The result, miceIlar and liquid crystalline organiza- tions, has a pronounced influence on the properties of macro-dispersed systems such as emulsions and foams as well as on many biological tissues. As an example of the latter, the lipid organization in the stratum comeurn will be reviewed. SCIENTIFIC SESSION B FRONTIERS OF SCIENCE LECTURE Sponsored by Felton Worldwide, Inc. Topobiology G. M. Edelman, The Neurosciences Institute of the Neuroscience Research Program, 1230 York Av- enue, New York, NY 1002 ! There is at present no adequate theory of develop- ment in the sense that there are adequate theories of evolution and genetics. The reason is that the mo- lecular processes leading to the formation in time of animal form are just beginning to be described. The key question is: How does the one-dimensional ge- netic code specify a three-dimensional animal of a given species? Recent analysis of the fundamental processes regu- lating development have given new insights that promise an answer to this question. A major clue rests in our understanding of the molecules that mediate the adhesion of one cell type to another. Some of these molecules are now identified, and ex- periments of the times and places of their expression give further clues to their regulation during devel- opment. These findings suggest that the study of place-dependent expression of such morphoregula- tory molecules (a field I have called topobiology) will be particularly fruitful. This field bears on how cells move and tissue sheets fold to form embryonic patterns. In this lecture, I will review these issues, 243
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