WATER-HOLDING CAPACITY OF MOISTURIZERS 283 cation, showing high hygroscopicity. Most of this increase was lost within 30 seconds, followed by a gradual return to a prehydration level in 180 seconds (Figure 3). WATER CONTENT OF THE SKIN SURFACE AFTER APPLICATION OF MOISTURIZERS From statistical analysis, we found that the distribution pattern of the data was not in a normal distribution. Therefore, the analysis system that we used to analyze the data is a non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis test) to show the differences between the groups. From the Kruskal-Wallis test it was shown that the differences between the groups had a statistical significance of P 0.00001. Although the Kruskal-Wallis test can test the hypothesis that there is at least one group that differs from the others, it is unable to determine which specific group has a real difference in relation to another. Therefore, the least significant difference (LSD) analysis can be useful to determine comparatively how different each group is from another, or, in other words, we can rank the groups according to the value of interest by comparing the value of one group to that of another pair, by pairs, until every pair is analyzed. We then used a numeric number to replace the testing agents: 1 = normal skin as a control 2 = 10% urea cream 3 = cream base 4 = 5% lactic acid cream 5 = pH5-Eucerin Five minutes after the application of agents we used the least significant difference (LSD) ...w.s 1000 800 600 400 200 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 sec. i RIGHT FOREARM • LEFT FOREARM Figure 3. Hygroscopicity and water-holding capacity pattern of pretreated normal skin, right and left forearm.

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