JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE 204 Prevention of pig mentation. The effectivenes s of products with the same SPF and differ- ent UVAPFs in skin type III and IV subjects exposed to a UV source representing average daily sun emission (31) showed only products with a high UVAPF prevented sun exposure–induced pigmentation (Table II). TOWARD ADAPTED SU N PROTECTION FOR PATIENTS WITH SKIN PATHOLOGY: ACNE EXAMPLE UVA increases hyp erpigmentation, and postinfl ammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is often associated with acne, which itself can worsen with sun exposure. To adapt photoprotection to these patients’ needs, sebum-absorbing materials such as Airlicium® (L’Oréal, Clichy, France) can be included to treat shiny and oily skin. To explore whether adapted dermocosmetics and photoprotection can prevent acne outbreaks, 337 phototype II–IV patients completing local or systemic medical treat- ment were evaluated. An anti-acne dermocosmetic including anti-infl ammatory and Tabl e II Pigmentation Protection Factor (PPF) Afforded by Sunscreens with Different SPF-to-UVAPF Ratio Product SPF UVAPF SPF/UVAPF PPF A 30 15 2 18.9 B 30 9 3.3 9.0 C 50 21 2.4 58.9 D 50 13 3.8 22.3 Figure 4. Comparison of two high SPF 50+ products with different levels of UVA protection in the preven- tion of PMLE reactions [UVA-PF 28 (grey bar) and UVA-PF 17 (black bar)]. The number of patients experi- encing PMLE according to cumulated UVA dose was greater for the lower UVA-PF instead SPF/UVAPF was 3 for both products.
SUNSCREENS FOR OPTIMAL PROTECTION EFFICACY 205 antimelanin synthesis activation to limit PIH and a sunscreen SPF30/UVAPF25 (ratio 1.2) developed for oily skin were prescribed for 90 d during summer. Overall, 45% experienced decreases in acne severity, 45% experienced no change and 10% an increase. CONCLUSIONS The di scovery in t he last 20 years that UVA radiation is probably as important as UVB in the induction of skin damage prompted the development of effi cient UVA absorbers and more effi cient sunscreens with a good balance between UVB/UVA protection and textures adapted to improve observance. Nevertheless, sun protection strategies and formulations only offer the expected protec- tion if applied as directed. Consumers described cosmetic elegance—pleasant texture and easy-to-use formulation, features absent from many high-level UVA/UVB products—as the most important feature of sun protection , and it should, therefore, be considered in the context of compliance, particularly for those who must use sun protection daily. Adaptive formulations tailored to different skin types (oily or dry skin), texture prefer- ences and needs (cream or ultra-light fl uid), and climatic conditions are necessary. Formulators play a key role in the observance of application of sunscreens and daily pho- toprotective skincare products, delaying photoaging and protecting patients with photo- dermatoses or skin disorders. REFERENCES (1) C. F. Garland , F. C. Garland, and E. C. Gorham, Epidemiologic evidence for different roles of ultraviolet A and B radiation in melanoma mortality rates, Ann. Epidemiol., 133, 95–404 (2003). (2) N. S. Agar, G . M. Halliday, R. S. Barnetson, H. N. Ananthaswamy, M. Wheeler, and A. M. Jones, The basal layer in human squamous tumors harbors more UVA than UVB fi ngerprint mutations: a role for UVA in human skin carcinogenesis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 101, 4954–4959 (2004). (3) F. Urbach, “Th e negative effect of solar radiation: a clinical overview”, in Sun Protection in Man, ESP Comprehensive Series in Photosciences, P. U. Giacomoni. Ed. (Elsevier Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherland, 2001), Vol. 3, pp. 41–67. (4) Commission In t ernationale de l’Eclairage Spectral Irradiance, Technical Report Pub N°CIE (1989), Vol. 5. (5) R. M. Lavker and K. Kaidbey, The spectra l dependence for UVA-induced cumulative damage in human skin, J. Invest. Dermatol., 108, 17–21 (1997). (6) S. Seité, D. Moyal, S. Richard, J. de R i gal, J.-L. Lévêque, C. Hourseau, and A. Fourtanier, Effects of repeated suberythemal doses of UVA in human skin, Eur. J. Dermatol., 7, 204–209 (1997). (7) S. Seité, D. Moyal, S. Richard, J. de Rigal J . L. Lévêque, C. Hourseau, and A. Fourtanier, Mexoryl SX: a broadspectrum absorption UVA fi lter protects human skin from the effects of repeated suberythemal doses of UVA, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol., 44, 69–76 (1998). (8) D. Moyal and A. Fourtanier, Acute and chronic effects of UV on skin, in Photoaging, D. S. Rigel, R. A. Weiss, H. W. Lim, and J. S. Dover. Eds. (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2004), pp. 15–32. (9) C. Marionnet, C. Pierrard, C. Golebiewski, and F. Berner d , Diversity of biological effects induced by longwave UVA rays (UVA1) in reconstructed skin, PLoS One, 9(8), e105263 (2014). (10) D. Moyal and A. Fourtanier, Effects of UVA radiation o n an established immune response in humans and sunscreen effi cacy, Exp. Dermatol., 11(1), 28–32. (2002). (11) J. Kuchel, R. Barnetson, and G. Halliday, Ultra violet A augments solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation- induced local suppression of recall responses in humans. J. Invest. Dermatol., 118, 1032–1037 (2002). (12) D. Moyal and O. Binet, Polymorphous light eruption (PLE ) : its reproduction and prevention by sun- screens, in Sunscreens Development and Evaluation and Regulatory Aspects, 2nd Ed., N. J. Lowe, N. Shaat, and M. Pathak. Eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1997), pp. 611–617.
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