499 Address all correspondence to Fernanda Daud Sarruf, fernanda.sarruf@usp.br Influence of Menstrual Cycle on Aromatic Composition Behavior After Skin Application by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry CLAUDIA S. C. P. DA COSTA, MARCUS T. SCOTTI, FERNANDA D. SARRUF, PAULO R. H. MORENO, ANDRÉ R. BABY AND MARIA V. R. VELASCO School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, 580 Prof. Lineu Prestes av., 05508-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil (C.S.C.P.dC., F.D.S., A.R.B., M.V.R.V) Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, 748 Prof. Lineu Prestes av., 05508-000, São Paulo, SP, Brazil (P.R.H.M) Centre of Science Applied and Education IV North Coast, University of Paraíba, da Mangueira s/n street, Centre, 58297-000 - Rio Tinto, PB, Brazil (M.T.S.) Givaudan® (Givaudan, Vernier, Switzerland) do Brasil, Av. Engenheiro Billings, 2185, Jaguaré, São Paulo, Brazil (C.S.C.P.dC.) Accepted for publication August 2, 2021. Synopsis Hormone secretion during the menstrual cycle changes per phase, influencing skin characteristics. These cutaneous modifications alter applied fragrances’ behavior. This research aimed at analyzing the influence of menstrual cycle phases on a fragrance’s volatile components’ variation after skin application on women. We analyzed the variation of the emitted volatile components from an aromatic composition applied on the skin of 29 female participants during all menstrual cycle phases (follicular, ovulatory, luteal, and menstrual). The emitted volatiles were collected immediately after application and at intervals of 1 h 30 min, 3 h, 4 h 30 min, and 6 h, in a tube filled with Tenax® (Tenax Therapeutics, Morrisville, NC) coupled to a thermal desorption unit. The components were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The raw ion- chromatogram data after “area normalization” were tested to principal components analysis and chemometrics tools. Statistical analysis showed no distinct variance pattern among the samples collected at different hormonal phases. However, the analysis of the individual scorer plots showed a distinct pattern for the release of aromatic compounds specific to each subject and associated with menstrual cycle phase. Although the results did not generate a model for skin’s release of aromatic compounds in the population, the data showed that sex hormones have a unique effect on skin. INTRODUCTION Fine perfumery involves inspiration and sophistication and competes in the domestic and international markets. It is inserted in a competitive market with different fragrances J. Cosmet. Sci., 72, 499–510 (September/October 2021)
500 JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE launched every day and is increasingly searching for a more stable and reliable performance (1,2). The concern about long-lasting perfume requires more elaborate research regarding factors that affect performance when applied. Many raw materials may be used in perfumery, which can be classified as natural (vegetal and animal) or synthetic (artificially produced). They can be divided into 13 olfactive groups: herbal, aldehydic, green, fruity, floral, spice, wood, leather, animal, musk, amber, and vanilla (3). A perfume can be defined as a homogeneous hydro-alcoholic dispersion containing 12%–30% of essential oils or aromatic compositions. The aromatic composition combines the raw materials to create a product that attends to consumers’ expectations (4). The structure of an aromatic composition is formed by three parts based on volatility: top, body, and bottom notes. Top notes are the first impression of the perfume and present the most volatile components. They remain on the skin for around 15 min. Body notes determine the identity of the composition and present intermediate volatility. They remain on the skin for 15 min to 4 h. Bottom notes represent the last step of the composition, with lowest volatility. They last between 4 and 8 h on the skin (5). The hormonal fluctuation during the menstrual cycle is characterized by cyclical differences in luteinizing, follicle stimulating, and estrogen and progesterone hormone concentrations. Estradiol secretion increases in the plasma during the preovulatory phase causing vasodilation. Progesterone secretion increases in the postovulatory phase, inducing higher baseline body temperatures compared to the preovulatory phase due to its thermogenic effect. These changes affect skin physiology and can modify the duration of fragrances on skin (6,7). Recent studies have shown that sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone) express several biological and immunological effects on skin (8,9). We observed fluctuations in perfume intensity perception along the cycle, but results were inconclusive (7,10–16). Fragrance components can behave differently on skin. Their durability and characteristics change based on the mixture of numerous components containing functional groups such as ketones, aldehydes, esters, amides, and alkenes, which can be affected when changing the substrate on which they are applied (2,5,16,17). Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the variation of volatile components of the assessed aromatic composition after application on female volunteers’ skin during the four phases of the menstrual cycle (follicular, ovulatory, luteal, and menstrual) by the dynamic headspace technique and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). MATERIAL AND METHODS INVESTIGATIONAL PRODUCT The floral, fresh, woody aromatic composition Ciclo® (Ciclo Cosméticos, São José, Brazil) 1910 used for this study was created by a perfumer from Givaudan® (Givaudan, Vernier, Switzerland) following International Fragrance Association (IFRA) norms. It is composed mainly of base olfactory notes (less diffusive) that deliver greater substantivity of perfume on the skin. The floral (body notes) and fresh (top notes) fractions are in lesser quantity and represent perfume identity.
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