J. Cosmet. Sci., 69, 245–255 ( July/August 2018) 245 The Infl uence of Packaging on Cosmetic Emulsion during Storage Assessed by FT-NIR Spectroscopy and Color Measurements ANNA GLISZCZYŃSKA-ŚWIGLO, PATRYCJA NOWAK, RENATA DOBRUCKA, and KATARZYNA PAWLAK-LEMAŃSKA, Faculty of Commodity Science, Poznań University of Economics and Business, al. Niepodleglości 10, Poznań 61-875, Poland Accepted for publication June 10, 2018. Synopsis FT-NIR spectroscopy and color measurements were applied to evaluate the infl uence of packaging on cosmetic cream stored at room and refrigerated conditions. Commercial cosmetic cream was stored for 2 and 4 mo in fi ve containers intended for cosmetics: aluminum jar with polypropylene thermos (Al/PP), acrylic jar with polypropylene thermos (Ac/PP), glass (G) jar, polypropylene (PP) jar, and styrene acrylonitrile (SAN) jars. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the FT-NIR spectra showed the effect of time on tested samples stored in all applied packagings separate groups were formed by fresh samples and samples stored for 2 and 4 mo. The changes in samples stored in the cold for 2 mo were similar for all applied packagings as compared with fresh samples, although samples stored in SAN jars formed a separate group. After 4 mo, a separate group was formed by samples stored in G jars. For samples stored at room temperature, the infl uence of packaging material on cosmetic emulsion was clearly visible four separate groups (Al/PP with PP, Ac/PP, G, and SAN) were created by samples stored for 4 mo. Using partial least squares (PLS1) regression, it was found that the FT-NIR spectra of tested samples correlated with their lightness L*, a* parameter, and total color difference ΔE*ab. FT-NIR spectroscopy is a rapid technique which could be useful to make the best choice of packaging for cosmetics protecting the original quality of products during long-term storage. INTRODUCTION Cosmetic products are commodities commonly used by people for skin maintenance, beauty, and treatment of skin diseases in their daily life (1). The use of appropriate pack- aging system is not only intended for passive protection against humidity, light, and oxygen, but also to improve the overall quality characteristics of their contents, e.g., to ex- tend the shelf-life and enhance the safety or protect sensory properties of products (2–4). Because of the dynamics of the changes on cosmetic market, development of new prod- ucts should be fast, and accordingly, stability prediction is usually performed by acceler- ated storage conditions (5). Temperature variation is the main parameter used to induce Address all correspondence to email@example.com.
JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE 246 rapid chemical and physical alterations in formulations, which are usually detected by quantifi cation of some components over time (6). Moreover, the kind of cosmetic packag- ing may also have great importance. The permeability of packaging materials is of great interest because this feature may change essential characteristics of products because of the reaction with environmental oxygen and carbon dioxide (7–9). The development of new materials, mainly polymers, and new fabrication methods have led to a substantial improvement in the quality and versatility of packaging materials (10). The use of ap- propriate types of packaging materials can improve the stability of cosmetics. There are few studies on the effect of packaging material on the stability of cosmetics. Available studies concern rather migration of some compounds from packaging to the product, which could be harmful to the consumer health (11), or the infl uence of cosmetic formulation on some properties of packaging materials (12). Santoro et al. (13) studied the stability of an emulsion containing ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), and infrared sunscreens after storage in different packaging materials (glass and polypropylene fl asks polypropylene and aluminum tubes), but they observed no signifi cant changes in the physical and chemical stability of emulsions stored in different packaging materials. In recent years, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy has found increased application in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, petrochemical, chemical, textile, polymer, and other industries (14–16). The NIR spectrum of a product is like its “chemical fi nger- print.” It could be applied to obtain qualitative (e.g. origin, type, and adulteration) or quantitative information (e.g. concentration of analyte) about a product. Principal compo- nent analysis (PCA) is commonly used for multivariate data reduction with minimum loss of information and to identify patterns in data, showing their similarities and differences. Multivariate calibration methods such as partial least squares (PLS) regression are used to look for the relationship between multivariate data, e.g., FT-NIR spectra, and other param- eters of a product. Possible calibration models can be used for the prediction of analyte concentration or parameters of a product from its FT-NIR spectrum (17,18). Studies concerning the application of FT-NIR spectroscopy for the evaluation of the effect of packaging materials on the overall quality of products are limited. They concern rather food products. Aday and Caner (19) compared the effect of three types of coatings, i.e., chitosan (polysaccharide), whey protein isolate, and shellac (lipid resin), on maintaining the quality of fresh cherry during storage. They used various measurements, including FT-NIR spectroscopy, and found that FT-NIR spectra are useful in predicting the sugar content and fi rmness of cherries. Colour measurements are very often used to monitor positive or negative alterations oc- curring in products, e.g., during storage however, such measurements were not used to study the effect of packaging materials on cosmetic products. Therefore, in the present study, FT-NIR spectroscopy and color measurements were pro- posed as tools to evaluate the infl uence of various packagings on the overall quality of cosmetic creams stored at refrigerated and room temperatures for 2 and 4 mo. PCA and PLS1 analyses were performed on multivariate data of cosmetic emulsions (FT-NIR spec- tra) to visualize the changes in creams during storage and to correlate them with the CIE (Comission Internationale de l’Eclairage) 1976 L*a*b* color parameters of creams, re- spectively. It is highly desirable to use the packaging that protects the original quality of a product during long-term storage. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies concerning the usage of FT-NIR spectroscopy with chemometric analysis for testing the
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