J. Cosmet. Sci., 61, 279–288 (July/August 2010) 279 Wild Plum: Novel particles of improved optical brightness and fl uorescence JORDAN GROATHOUSE, HOMAR BARCENA, CASEY GUSTAFSON, MARK V. WILSON, DAVID J. SYMONSBERGEN, KERRY A. LUCAS, and ANDREA E. HOLMES, Doane College, 1014 Boswell Avenue, Crete NE 68333 (J.G., C.G., M.V.W, D.J.S., K.A.L., A.E.H.), and Department of Physical Sciences, Kingsborough Community College, 2001 Oriental Boulevard, Brooklyn, NY 11235-2398 (H.B.). Accepted for publication March 16, 2010. Synopsis A novel compound named Wild Plum fl uoresces blue, and has been synthesized to camoufl age skin imperfec- tions, addressing the market demand for an anti-aging product. Wild Plum imparts optical brightness and fl uorescence and can be used as an ingredient in cosmetic formulations. Skin appearance before and after ap- plication of Wild Plum compounds demonstrated an improved appearance of skin including a decreased number of wrinkles. When added to makeup, lotions, creams, and powders, Wild Plum conveys the glow of healthy youthful skin, replacing other costly or invasive alternatives such as cosmetic surgery. INTRODUCTION CURRENT MARKET SITUATION Cosmetics are personal and highly valued consumable goods. They are critical to a per- son’s identity, helping to create or accentuate beauty and youthfulness. As generations of savvy consumers age, products for concealing age spots, wrinkles, and fl aws continue to grow in demand. In response to this need, sales of cosmetics are growing at a 5% yearly pace to $265 billion USD globally and $50 billion in the U.S. (1). Sales of anti-aging skin care products and treatments are growing steadily at approximately 30% a year (2). This demand is driven by aging baby boomers who want to reduce and/or eliminate wrinkles and by younger people hoping to prevent signs of aging. Our team created a technology that has direct applications to target this market. A report entitled “New Beauty for New Consumers 2009” speaks directly to consumers’ desires for Address all correspondence to Andrea E. Holmes.
JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE 280 instant semi-permanent or permanent results, effects that Wild Plum can mimic without the drawbacks of harsh chemicals or procedures (3,4). THE PROBLEM The luminous appearance of skin is associated with health and youth (5). Aging, sun exposure, habitual facial expressions, smoking, and poor hydration lead to skin wrin- kles (6). As skin ages, its normal level of fl uorescence decreases, coinciding with the decrease in elastin and collagen found in the skin’s surface layer. Fluorescence is a key factor directly related to the outward appearance of luster, smoothness, and glow com- monly associated with younger skin (5,7). Blue is the dominant autofl uorescence color found in the skin, but it begins to diminish as a person ages or as a result of excessive sun damage (5,7,8). This results in an outward appearance of dull, older skin, which lacks luster, smoothness, and glow. Therefore, fl uorescence can be used as a marker of photoaged skin. Current products range from basic foundations and powders to extremely invasive chem- ical peels and surgeries. Chemical peels and dermabrasion treatments are costly and painful, and can leave skin irritated and problem areas infl amed. Cosmetic surgeries are currently the most costly option, with facelifts and Botox® injections becoming more mainstream (13,14). The cosmetics industry also attempts to combat the appearance of aging by incorporating optically active particles that can interact with light in makeup formulations (9,10). Many are limited to tinted coverups that impart color only. Existing coverup products often cake onto skin, actually accentuating the presence of imperfec- tions in the skin by highlighting blemishes and unevenly collecting in enlarged pores and fi ne lines. Although they can provide uniform color coverage, they fall short of giv- ing skin a healthy glow. There is a need for a cosmetic adjuvant that can impart luminos- ity and diffuse refl ectance of light and fl uorescence, to achieve what makeup alone cannot. SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND CURRENT OPTICAL BRIGHTENERS Optical brighteners have permeated the cosmetics industry. Patent literature shows that coumarins, styryl, microspheres, and microcapsules are incorporated into cos- metic formulations for this purpose (11–13). Most optical brighteners are only UV active, and many fl uorescent dyes for cosmetics are water-soluble and will not fl uo- resce in the solid state. There are only a few substances on the market that can be used in cosmetics that fl uoresce in the solid state. For example, LipoLight OAP/PVA (10) fl uoresces blue, and other mineral powders fl uoresce in a wide range of colors, depend- ing on composition (9). Wild Plum is a new powder that can be synthesized in a one-pot synthesis with in- expensive starting materials (4). It is a blue fl uorescent solid, and the tunability of its organic synthesis allows for the broadening of applications to oil-and-water-based formulas.
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