WILD PLUM IN COSMETIC FORMULATIONS 283 of 0.29 ± 0.03, allowing for suffi cient fl uorescence to produce the desired effect without blinding the observer with blue light (data not shown). Wild Plum emits a blue glow similar to the measured blue fl uorescence of non-sun-damaged skin (Figure 1), suggest- ing that Wild Plum has the ability to mimic natural, healthy skin. To the observer, this effect provides an unusual radiance to the skin. IN VIVO RESULTS The effi cacy of Wild Plum was determined quantitatively by skin color data obtained from the CIELAB color space (21). Color coordinates a∗, b∗, and L∗ are considered to cor- relate with color changes preceived by the human eye. An increase in the L∗ coordinate indicates lightening and a decrease indicates darkening of the skin surface. Table I shows that L∗ increases when Wild Plum is added to a commercial foundation. When the a∗ and b∗ coordinates increase, reddening and yellowing increase, respectively. Compared to skin without makeup, the addition of Wild Plum to a commercial foundation shows a decrease in red and yellow but an increase in lightness as preceived by the digital camera. Overall, the data demonstrate that luminosity increases while reddening decreases. In vivo data show that Wild Plum quantifi ed the wrinkle condition as we employed a ten-point monadic scale, with one [1] representing the fewest, least prominent fi ne lines and wrinkles and ten [10] showing the maximum number of deep fi ne lines and wrinkles. Figure 2. (Left) UV-Vis spectrum of Wild Plum at 0.02% in DMSO. (Right) Fluorescence emission spec- trum of Wild Plum at 2.0% and 0.02% in talcum powder (λex = 390 nm λem = 450 nm). Table I Skin Color Data Obtained from Adobe Photoshop CS2 No makeup Makeup Makeup with Wild Plum L* 67.4 66.5 75.8 a* 16.3 19.2 15.2 b* 20.5 26.5 25.2 L* Coordinate a* Coordinate b* Coordinate Increase Lightening Red Yellow Decrease Darkening Green Blue
JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE 284 Application of foundation containing Wild Plum dramatically improved the overall appearance of the skin. Figure 3 shows a 62-year old female without makeup (left), with makeup (center), and with makeup that contains Wild Plum (right). Figure 4 shows the visual grading wrinkle scores on a ten-point monadic scale (n = 10). The average score for the face image without makeup is 5.6 for the face image with makeup, it is 4.9 and for the face image with makeup containing Wild Plum, it is 2.7. This represents a signifi cant visual appearance of wrinkle decrease. Paired images showing the same part of the face were compared for consistency. In all cases, the difference between no makeup and makeup not containing Wild Plum was not statistically signifi cant Figure 3. A 62-year-old female (left) wearing no makeup (center) wearing commercial makeup and (right) wearing commercial makeup formulated with Wild Plum. Figure 4. Results from an interview comparing images without makeup, with makeup, and with makeup containing Wild Plum using a ten-point monadic scale, with one [1] representing the fewest, least prominent wrinkles and ten [10] showing the maximum of wrinkles. n = 10. Error bars represent standard deviation.
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