WILD PLUM IN COSMETIC FORMULATIONS 287 The chemical composition of Wild Plum includes the fl uorescent moiety 4,4′- diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid. This component has been safely used in many cos- metic applications in the market, and is therefore not expected to be toxic (27). Preliminary skin irritancy studies have already indicated that there are no short-term adverse side effects, such as redness, swelling, or itching. More extensive skin irritancy studies are underway. Little or no skin irritancy is expected, given the facts that the con- centration of Wild Plum in cosmetic formulations is low, at a level of 0.005% to 0.1%, and that the average particle is between 10 and 20 microns. WILD PLUM OUTLOOK The leading edge of the baby boomer generation (born between 1946 and 1964) is a very important generation with purchasing power. Anti-aging products like Wild Plum offer this discerning and quickly growing demographic a solution to skin problems and imper- fections without having to undergo painful and costly surgeries and peels this also appeals to the growing male grooming market. The development of this new photolumi- nescent technology as an additive to existing cosmetic and toiletry formulations gives added value to the consumer. CONCLUSIONS Wild Plum imparts optical brightness, color purity, and photoluminescence for use in ap- plications such as cosmetic and toiletry formulations. The addition of Wild Plum to com- mercially available makeup indicates a dramatic improvement in skin appearance. Wild Plum leads to youthful-looking skin, as the appearance of wrinkles, pigmentations, and discoloration are diminished. Wild Plum powder can be incorporated into makeup prod- ucts and is highly effective in covering skin troubles and creating a uniform, natural look. Preparations of Wild Plum could include any number of cosmetic and toiletry prepara- tions, and work is under way to explore these possibilities. Future studies also include the development of Wild Plum particles that photoluminesce other colors such as green and red. Wild Plum is commercially available from Novel Chemical Solutions (Crete, NE). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The project is supported by NIH grant P20 RR016469 from the INBRE Program of the National Center for Research Resources, by NSF CHE-0747949, and by the NCS. We thank Marilyn Miglin for providing commercial makeup samples for the Wild Plum formulation. REFERENCES (1) B. Davies, State of the industry: Eco-values escalate, Global Cosmetics Industry (June 2007). http://www. gcimagazine.com/marketstrends/regions/world/11296906.html. (2) A. Wells, US advertising spending grew 0.2% in fi rst nine months of 2007, TNS Media Intelligence (11 December 2007). http://www.tns-mi.com/news/12112007.htm. (3) “New Beauty for New Consumers 2009,” Diagonal Reports (9 July 2009). http://www.diagonalreports. com/pdfs/gsp08ww_pr.html.
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