A. INCISUS EXTRACT AND WRINKLE REDUCTION 323 previous study reported the effects of the crude extract of A. incisus’s heartwood on tyros- inase, melanogenesis, and oxidation activities. Therefore, this study focused on the ability of the extract to improve the functions of fi broblasts from wrinkled-skin biopsies. These functions include cell proliferation, type I procollagen and MMP-1 production, and the capacity to reorganize collagen fi bers. We found that the aged-related decrease in the functional activities of fi broblasts from wrinkles could be reversible by treatment with the extract from A. incisus’s heartwood. However, these fi ndings on cell-culture fi broblasts do not prove that the extract will decrease wrinkles in humans. Clinical studies in human subjects will be needed to determine the effi cacy of the extract on wrinkle reduction. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Financial and facility support from the Thailand Research Fund and the Center of Excel- lence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC), Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education is gratefully acknowledged. In addition, we thank Dr. Charles Norman Scholfi eld for his valuable discussions. REFERENCES (1) P. U. Giacomoni and G. Rein, A mechanistic model for the aging of human skin, Micron, 35, 179–184 (2004). (2) V. N. Novoseltsev, J. Novoseltseva, and A. Yashin, A homeostatic model of oxidative damage explains paradoxes observed in the earlier aging experiments: A fusion and extension of older theories of aging, Biogerontology, 2, 127–138 (2001). (3) D. Batisse, R. Bazin, T. Baldeweck, B. Querleux, and J.-L. Lévêque, Infl uence of age on the wrinkling capacities of the skin, Skin Res. Technol., 8, 148–154 (2002). (4) S. Diridollou, V. Vabre, M. Berson, L. Vaillant, D. Black, J. M. Lagarde, J. M. Grégoire, Y. Gall, and F. Patat, Skin aging: Changes of physical properties of human skin in vivo, Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., 23, 353–362 (2001). (5) J. H. Chung, J. Y. Seo, H. R. Choi, M. K. Lee, C. S. Youn, G. Rhie, K. H. Cho, K. H. Kim, K. C. Park, and H. C. Eun, Modulation of skin collagen metabolism in aged and photoaged human skin in vivo, J. Invest. Dermatol., 117, 1218–1224 (2001). (6) J. Varani, D. Spearman, P. Perone, S. E. G. Fligiel, S. C. Datta, Z. Q. Wang, Y. Shao, S. Kang, G. J. Fisher, and J. J. Voorhees, Inhibition of type I procollagen synthesis by damaged collagen in photoaged skin and by collagenase-degraded collagen in vitro, Am. J. Pathol., 158, 931–942 (2001). (7) E. F. Bernstein and J. Uitto, The effect of photodamage on dermal extracellular matrix, Clin. Dermatol., 14, 143–151 (1996). (8) G. Jenkins, Molecular mechanisms of skin aging, Mech. Aging Dev., 123, 801–810 (2002). (9) J. Varani, R. L. Warner, M. Gharaee-Kermani, S. H. Phan, S. Kang, J. H. Chung, Z. Q. Wang, S. C. Datta, G. J. Fisher, and J. J. Voorhees, Vitamin A antagonizes decreased cell growth and elevated collagen- degrading matrix metalloproteinases and stimulates collagen accmulation in naturally aged human skin, J. Invest. Dermatol., 114, 480–486 (2000). (10) M. D. West, The cellular and molecular biology of skin aging. Arch. Dermatol., 130, 87–95 (1994). (11) M. Jouandeaud, C. Viennet, S. Bordes, B. Closs, and P. Humbert, Comparison of the biomechanical and biosynthetics behavior of normal human fi broblasts and fi broblasts from a forehead wrinkle, IFSCC Magazine, 7, 109–113 (2004). (12) E. Tamariz and F. Grinnell, Modulation of fi broblast morphology and adhesion during collagen matrix remodeling, Mol. Biol. Cell, 13, 3915–3929 (2002). (13) H. U. Püschel, J. Chang, P. K. Müller, and J. Brickmann, Attachment of intrinsically and extrinsically aged fi broblasts on collagen and fi bronectin, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, 27, 39–46 (1995). (14) H. S. Talwar, C. E. M. Griffi ths, G. J. Fisher, T. A. Hamilton, and J. J. Voorhees, Reduced type I and type II procollagens in photodamaged adult human skin, J. Invest. Dermatol., 105, 285–290 (1995).
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