J. Cosmet. Sci., 72, 139–154 (March/April 2021) 139 Religion and Cosmetics: Guidelines for Preparing Products Aimed at the Muslim World Based on the Interpretation of Halal Cosmetics in Malaysia FATIN N. MAJDINA NORDIN and CHE W. JASIMAH WAN MOHAMED RADZI , Department of Science and Technology Studies, Faculty of Science and Programme of Applied Science and Islamic Studies, Academy of Islamic Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (F.N.M.N.) , Department of Science and Technology Studies, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia (C.W.J.W.M.R.) Accepted for publication November 15, 2020. Synopsis The ingredients of cosmetic products are the mixture of chemical substances derived from natural or synthetic sources. The substances are used as either active (functional) or excipient (additional) ingredients. The source of origin of the ingredients is a critical point for the determination of halal status. Halal is an Arabic word that means things or actions that are permitted by the Islamic law. A halal product can be interpreted as something permissible for consumption by Muslims. Thus, the objective of this study was to understand the critical points for the differences between halal and general cosmetics, and their classifi cations. This study also identifi es issues related to the safety of cosmetic ingredients that may affect the halal status of a cosmetic product. The method used was document and content analyses. The main documents that were analyzed include Malaysian Standard MS 2634:2019, Manual Procedure for Malaysia Halal Certifi cation issued by the Department of Islamic Development Malaysia or Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (JAKIM), and Guidelines for the Control of Cosmetic Products issued by the National Pharmaceutical Regulatory Agency under the Ministry of Health of Malaysia. This study fi nding describes four critical points of differences, namely, (i) ingredient, (ii) processing, (iii) safety, and (iv) ethics and responsibility. The classifi cation of ingredients is based on the origin of ingredients, and the safety aspect can assist in the determination of halal status. This study suggested the integration between the origin of ingredients, and the safety and ethical aspects in the evaluation of halal cosmetic to better describe the practical aspect of halal–tayyib in cosmetics. The integration of safety and halal, and ethics and responsibility are suggested to better describe the practical aspect of halal–tayyib in cosmetics. INTRODUCTION The use of cosmetic and personal care can be traced from the ancient history. The desire of both men and women to look beautiful and attractive is among the driving factors for Address all correspondence to Fatin N. Majdina Nordin at fatinmajdina@um.edu.my and Che W. Jasimah Wan Mohamed Radzi at jasimah@um.edu.my.
JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE 140 the usage of these products. Nowadays, these products are used daily by many people, and their consumption is increasing every year. Approximately 9–15 products of different kinds of cosmetic and personal care are used by adults in their daily life (1,2). Besides that, cosmetic and personal care is becoming an important part of human life and con- sidered as a necessity for personal hygiene, improving attractiveness, protecting skin and hair against harmful ultraviolet light and pollutants, and to slow down the ageing process (3). The cosmetic industry is rapidly growing and offers a promising return to industry play- ers. Among the factors that encourage the growth of this industry are the adoption of a new lifestyle both by youth and by the ageing population and the climate changes. The tendency to follow current trends such as the preference toward natural and organic beauty products, the development of new products due to the development of science and technology, the innovation on the use of different ingredients, the rising demand for brightening or antioxidant face creams, and the growth of global economies makes the cosmetic industry a state of innovation and expansion in the Western and in the Asian world, as well as in Muslim countries (4–7). Products aimed at the Muslim population have to follow the halal guidelines. According to Mordor Intelligence(8), global halal cosmetic products are expected to reach a value of United States dollar (USD) 51.40 billion by 2022 at a projected compound annual growth rate of 14.79% from 2017 until 2022. The growth of this industry has resulted in huge participation of local manufacturers in the halal cosmetic sector besides the international brands. Halal status is among the major concern of Muslim consumers, particularly in foods and beverages, and other aspects of their lifestyles. In the early development of the halal industry, most of the attention was given to halal food. However, the halal industry has extended into other sectors including cosmetic and personal care, pharmaceutical drugs, medical devices, and logistics industry such as transportation, packaging, and warehousing. The word halal is an Arabic word (halla, yahillu, and hillan) which means permitted, al- lowed, permissible, released, liberated, and lawful by the Islamic law (Shariah). The word halal is mentioned in the Quran to explain an act, object, or conduct in which an indi- vidual has the freedom of choice and the practice does not carry either a reward or a pun- ishment (3,9). It refers to the whole system of principles and rules that should be abided by every Muslim. For the halal products, particularly cosmetic, halal can be interpreted as permissible for consumption by Muslims. The halal status of products is an important element for Muslims because it might affect the prayer and other religious obligations. Nowadays, halal has become a brand that offers a quality and wholesome product. The discussion on halal and tayyib became relevant when the halal industry began to develop. Before that, the word halal was rarely discussed along with the term tayyib but always associated with the fi ve defi ning law in Islam or the scale of fi ve values, namely, the obligatory (wajib), recommendable (mandub), permissible (mubah), reprehensible (makruh), and forbidden (haram) (9). The word tayyib has a strong foundation because the word halal in many verses of the Quran mentioned halal followed by tayyib to de- scribe and expand the meaning of the word halal. The four verses in Quran, namely, in surah al-Baqarah (2:168), surah al-Maidah (5:88), surah al-Anfaal (8:69), and surah an-Nahl (16:114), described halal as lawful items such as foods that Muslims are obliged to choose except in an emergency state, and the halal foods should be in good condition and wholesome. In the current context, tayyib can be interpreted as a good quality, trusted, hygienic, safe, healthy, and wholesome (9). In short, halal is not a term
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