MOISTURIZING EFFECT OF TOPICAL COSMETIC PRODUCTS 331 INSTRUMENTAL TECHNIQUES The procedure for SC hydration measurement involved the CORNEOMETR® CM 825 (Courage & Kazaka Electronic GmbH, Cologne, Germany). In principle, the instrument assesses changes in the electrical capacity of the skin’s surface that indicates SC hydration. The parameter depends on the value of the dielectric water constant, relative to other ele- ments of the skin. The Corneometer gives only a relative assessment of skin hydration (39). For TEWL (40), as an indicator of successful skin barrier function, the authors used the TEWAMETER® TM 300 (Courage & Kazaka Electronic GmbH). One of the most accu- rate procedures, this method can detect even the slightest disruption of skin barrier func- tion. It is based on the diffusion of water into the area of an open chamber of cylindrical shape while determining the density gradient between two pairs of sensors (temperature and relative humidity). Digital imaging was used to evaluate physiological changes in the skin and to obtain photographic documentation, employing a VISIOSCOPE COLOR® (Courage & Kazaka Electronic GmbH) video magnifi er. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of six cosmetic moisturizers (fi ve creams and one foam, n = 6) designed for diabetic foot were tested along with the prepared ointment base without effective moisturizing agents (Table I). The tested CPs for diabetics indicate composition according to the Inter- national Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI). It was claimed that the Beline® balm would oil dry skin, bind moisture, improve blood circulation, and prevent skin in- fl ammation, in addition to having nourishing and regenerative properties. Beline is a spe- cial caring CP for strong-stressed legs and feet with a strong healing effect. It is made on herbal base containing urea, panthenol, allantoin, chamommila, and other fl ower extracts. Nourishing and regenerating properties were declared for the Ziaja® cream, including sup- porting the strengthening of the skin structure and preventing cracks in the same. Active substances include hydroxyproline to fi rm the skin and other additives for conditioning and regenerating the skin such as hydrolyzed lupine protein, oligopeptides (collagen), and oligosaccharides. Eucerin® cream was designed for extra dry and cracked skin on both legs and feet and is recommended by the manufacturer for complementary care in the dermato- logical treatment of not only the skin of the feet of diabetics but also atopic eczema, psoria- sis, and ichthyosis. Along with 10% urea, which helps accelerate the elimination of a thickened horny layer and regeneration of the skin, an additional active moisturizing ingre- dient was used, specifi cally lactic acid that effectively binds water in skin cells. For Allpresan® foam, the moisturizing effect of 10% urea was supported by Pentavitin® (a commercial name of carbohydrate complex) and panthenol. The foam contained no aromatics and pre- servatives. DiabeCare® was a product specially developed for the dry and sensitive skin of diabetics. It contains a combination of selected active substances with a fully ranging action on hydration and regeneration of the skin. The Scholl® cream is declared to stimulate the skin by renewing cells in rough, dry, and cracked skin. Before actually applying the cosmetics to the skin, pretreatment of the skin was per- formed on eight areas of the left and right hands on the sides of the volar forearms using a 0.5% solution of sodium laurylsulfate (SLS) in saline solution for 4 h. SLS solution of 0.5% was used to clean and degrease the skin with the view to eliminate individual factors.
JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE 332 This method is also an acceptable model for pretreatment of DM patients’ skin. Only then there was a one-off application of the CPs, the volume being 0.1 ml for each, to six areas of 8 cm2 each, as shown in Fig. 1. The ungreased area, not treated with a prepara- tion, served as a control for any irritative effects. Experimental values for the monitored parameters after degreasing were obtained by measuring each characteristic at the time intervals of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 24, 25, and 26 h. The hydration measured, using the corneomet- ric technique, was determined fi ve times for each volunteer in each delimited area of the Table I Composition of the CP for Foot Care Designed for Diabetics According to the INCI CP Composition Beline® (cream) Aqua, Ethylhexyl stearate, Hydrogenated palm glycerides, Caprylic/Kapric triglyceride, Glycerine, Cetearyl alcohol, Ceteareth-100, Glyceryl stearate, Butyrospermum parkii, Zea germ mays oil, Urea, Propylene glycol, Lanolin cera, Dimethicone, Ethoxidiglycol, Panthenol, Allantoin, Phenoxyethanol, Iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, Calendula offi cinalis fl ower extract, Equisetum arvense extract, Chamommila recutita fl ower extract, Niacinamide, Benzyl nicotinate, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, Ethylparaben, Butylparaben parfum Ziaja® (cream) Aqua, Glycerine, PPG-15 Steraryl ether, Elaeis guineesis (palm) oil, Steareth-2, Steareth-21, Cetyl alcohol, Methylsilanol hydroxyproline aspartate, Dimethicone, Polyacrylamide, C13-14 Isoparaffi n, Laureth-7, Panthenol, Hydrolyzed lupine protein, Lecithin, Urea, Tocopheryl acetate, Sodium polyacrylate, Phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben, Propylyparaben, 2-Bromo-2- nitropropane-1,3-diol, Diazolidinyl urea, Cymbopogon schoenanthus oil, Citral, Geraniol, Citric acid Eucerin® (cream) Aqua, Glycerine, Urea, Cetearyl alcohol, Sodium lactate, Caprylic/Capric triglyceride, Ethylhexyl cocoate, Hydrogenated coco-glycerides, Octyldodecanol, Cera microcristallina, Paraffi num liquidum, Dimethicone, Sorbitan stearate, Aluminum starch octenylsuccinate, Lactic acid, Phenoxyethanol, PEG-40 castor oil, Sodium cetearyl sulfate, Carbomer Allpresan® (foam) Aqua, Urea, Butane, Decyl oleate, Octyldodecanol, Cetearyl alcohol, Propane, Stearic acid, Propylene Glycol, Glycerine, Glyceryl stearate, Panthenol, Sacharide isomerate, Undecyl alcohol, Allantoin, Potassium lauroyl wheat amino acid, Palm glycerides, Capryloyl glycine, Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate, Citric acid, Pentavitin made by Pentapharm Ltd DiabeCare® (cream) Aqua, Glycerine, Glyceryl stearate, Ceteareth-20, Ceteareth-12, Cetearyl alcohol, Cethyl palmitane, Parafi num liquidum, Urea, Cetearyl ethylhexanoate, Macadamia ternifolia seed oil, Panthenol, Synthetic beewax, Ceramide 3, Ceramide 6 II, Ceramide 1, Phytosphingosine, Cholesterol, Sodium lauroyl lactylate, Phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben, Butylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isobutylparaben, Carbomer, DMDM hydantoin, Triethanolamine, Parfume, Tocopheryl acetate, Aloe barbadensis, α-Isomethyl ionone, Butylphenyl methylpropional Scholl® (cream) Aqua, Urea, Dimethicone, Decyl oleate, Petrolatum, Lanolin, Dicocoyl pentaerythrityl distearyl citrate, Cera microsristallina, Glyceryl oleate, Paraffi n, Keratin, Hydrolyzed keratin, Panthenol, Aluminium stearate, Propylene glycol, Phenoxyethanol, Carbomer, Chlorphenesin, Bisabolol, Tocopheryl acetate, Sorbitol, Methylparaben, Butylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isobutylparaben, BHA, Citric Acid, Sodium Phosphate, Faex, Potassium Sorbate. Ointment base Aqua purifi cata, Parafi num solidum, Parafi num liquidum, Alcohol cetylstearyl, Slovasol 2430, Trolaminum, Carbomerum 980, Methylparaben, Propylparaben
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