MOISTURIZING EFFECT OF TOPICAL COSMETIC PRODUCTS 339 intervals (1–26 h) using factorial ANOVA evaluation, signifi cant differences were dem- onstrated. It was confi rmed that the ointment base has no signifi cant effect on hydration of the skin. The effect of hydration is thus signifi cantly dependent on the formulation of the product. The same follows from the statistical surveys conducted and dedicated to exploring the differences between Eucerin® and Allpresan®, for which the urea content declared by the producer was 10%. The values of hydration for Eucerin® were higher, by up to half, within the fi rst 2 h immediately after application compared to Allpresan®. It is also obvious that Eucerin® tends to exhibit hydrating effects, whereas Allpresan® favors more barrier properties. A maintained or restored adequate barrier function, as expressed in TEWL, is ensured with urea content above 6% in the CPs, regardless of the duration of their action or lower additions of urea below 4% accompanied by a longer period of CP action. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The study was funded with the support of the Internal Grant Agency/Faculty of Technology/ 2013/016 project. REFERENCES (1) I. Ahmed and B. Goldstein, Diabetes mellitus, Clin. Dermatol., 24, 237–246 (2006). (2) H. Seirafi , K. Farsinejad, A. Firooz, R. M. Robati, M. S. Hoseini, A. H. Ehsani, and B. Sadr, Biophysical characteristics of skin in diabetes: A controlled study, J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol., 23, 146–149 (2009). (3) P. Pithova and L. Jaresova, Skin changes in diabetes mellitus from the viewpoint of the diabetologist, Dermatol. Pract., 1, 168–171 (2007). (4) S. Sakai, K. Kikuchi, J. Satoh, H. Tagami, and S. Inoue, Functional properties of the stratum corneum in patients with diabetes mellitus: Similarities to senile xerosis, Br. J. Dermatol., 153, 319–323 (2005). (5) N. Papanas, D. Papazoglou, K. Papatheodorou, and E. Maltezos, Evaluation of a new foam to increase skin hydratation of the foot in type 2 diabetes: A pilot study, Int. Wound J., 8, 297–300 (2011). (6) C. Braham, D. Betea, C. Pierard-Franchimont, A. Beckers, and G. E. Pierard, Skin tensile properties in patients treated for acromegaly, Dermatology, 204, 325–329 (2002). (7) F. Hashmi, J. Malone-Lee, and E. Hounsell, Plantar skin in type II diabetes: An investigation of protein glycation and biomechanical properties of plantar epidermis, Eur. J. Dermatol., 16, 26–32 (2006). (8) J. S. Ulbrecht, P. R. Cavanagh, and G. M. Caputo, Foot problems in diabetes: An overview, Clin. Infect. Dis., 39, 73–82 (2004). (9) L. Dalla Paola L and E. Faglia, Treatment of diabetic foot ulcer: An overview strategies for clinical ap- proach, Curr. Diabetes Rev., 2, 431–437 (2006). (10) A. J. Boulton, The diabetic foot: Grand overview, epidemiology, and pathogenesis, Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev., 24, 3–6 (2008). (11) N. Papanas and E. Maltezos, The diabetic foot: Established and emerging treatments, Acta Clin. Belg., 62, 230–238 (2007). (12) N. Tentolouris, C. Voulgari, S. Liati, A. Kokkinos, I. Eleftheriadou, K. Makrikalis, K. Marinou, and N. Katsilamvros, Moisture status of the skin of the feet assessed by the visual test neuropad correlates with foot ulceration in diabetes, Diabetes Care, 33, 1112–114 (2010). (13) A. Chakrabarty, R. A. Norman, and T. J. Philips, Cutaneous manifestations of diabetes, Wounds, 14, 267–274 (2002). (14) T. Pavicic and H. C. Korting, Xerosis and callus formation as a key to the diabetic foot syndrome: Der- matologic view of the problem and its management, J. Dtsch. Dermatol. Ges., 4, 935–941 (2006). (15) A. Foster, An evaluation of nice guidelines on foot care for patients with diabetes, Nurs. Times, 10, 52– 53 (2004).
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