328 JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE Figure 3. Imaging the characteristic negative ion of CETAB at 79 m/z (Br) in the cross section of an uncreated control hair fiber. Figure 4. Imaging the characteristic negative ion of CETAB at 79 m/z (Br) in the cross sections of three different CETAB-created hair fibers.
- a) a ::J u u 1.le+S 1.4e+5 1.2e+5 1.0e+S 8.0e+4 8.0e+4 4.0e+4 2.0e+4 0.0 CATIONIC CONDITIONING COMPOUNDS Untreated 1xPQ-10 10xPQ-10 1xCETAB 10xCETAB Treatment 329 Figure 5. Effect of polymeric and monomeric cationic conditioning compounds on fatigue resistance (characteristic life, 8). is simulated by repeatedly loading and unloading a single hair with a weight that is close (or slightly lower) to the yield force of the hair. This is done by a machine (TRI "Hair Fatigue Tester") developed by TRI to simulate repeated stretching of hair within the Hookean region by repeated loading and unloading (cyclic fatiguing). Fatigue resistance is expressed by characteristic life, 0, which represents the number of fatigue cycles necessary to break 63.2% of the total hair population tested. Fatigue resistance depends on the properties of the cortex. Therefore, a decrease in characteristic life is generally indicative of fiber damage, whereas an increase in characteristic life suggests reinforcement of the fiber cuticle and cortex. Although details of the test and the processing of data cannot be given in detail in this communication, hair fatigue studies at TRI have shown that in comparison to bleached hair without conditioner treatment, fatigue resistance (characteristic life, 0) is greatly improved in bleached hair that had been exposed to multiple treatments with the CETAB (Figure 5 ). Even a single treatment of bleached hair with the low-molecular weight CETAB shows an increase in characteristic life, suggesting fiber reinforcement by penetration of the monomeric cationic into the fiber interior. (Hair fibers were fatigued in TRI's "Hair Fatigue Tester" at a rate of -1 Hertz and a 40 g load.) As shown in Figure 5 as well, treatments with polymeric cationics, such as PQ-10, show moderate or no improvement in fatigue resistance over that of untreated hair, because the cationic polymeric is not capable of penetrating into the cortex. Since fatigue resistance depends on the properties of the cortex, high-molecular-weight conditioning compounds, which show no penetration into the cortex, may not display (as in this case) significant improvements in fatigue resistance. However, it should be noted that these polymeric conditioning compounds are capable of penetrating, at least for a limited distance, into the outer cuticle layers and "reinforcing" them by gluing. We have shown in an earlier publication (1) that this conditioner-induced "reinforcement" im proves the creep resistance of the hair fiber. This can have a small effect on fatigue
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