332 JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE of GL results in the largest improvement of the initial foam height and the foam stability among the fragrances investigated here. Evaluation of Cosmetic Foaming Cleanser by Paired Comparisons Method with Think - Aloud Method Masami Senoo Advanced Cosmetic Research Laboratories, KOSE Corporation research. The exploratory evaluation aims to discover the unknown characteristics of tested products, whereas the confirmatory evaluation aims to examine the attainment of their designed quality. This report presents an evaluation method to achieve simultaneously the two objectives using the think - aloud method with the paired comparisons method. The results obtained for two foaming cleansers possessed both exploratory aspects and confirmatory ones, and were straightforward in demonstrating the features of the foaming cleansers because the think - aloud method was not restricted by a complicated evaluation procedure. Evaluation studies in the development of new types of The method proposed from the discussions can be readily cosmetics are divided into exploratory and confirmatory applied to the process of new product development.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 56, 333-335 (September/October 2005) Abstracts International Journal of Cosmetic Science Vol. 27, No. 4, 2005* Method for evaluation of the efficacy of antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetic wet wipes A Cremieux•, S. Cupferman and C. Lens *Micraam, Faculte de Pharmacie, 13385 Marseille Cedex, France, L'Oreal Recherche, 94550 Chevilly-Larue, France and Keybio, ZI Les Paluds, BP 1427, 13785 Aubagne Cedex, France Many cosmetic formulations are now available in the form of wet wipes packaged in sealed sachets or packets. Like the majority of cosmetic products having an aqueous phase, wipes are susceptible to microbial contamination and require the addition of preservatives. The efficacy of such preservatives can be evaluated using a standard challenge test performed on the wetting liquid but this test cannot be regarded as representative for this new type of formulation. The method presented here evaluates the efficacy of preservatives used in wet wipes kept in their original packaging. Dried inoculums were prepared by membrane filtration followed by drying in an incubator. The method is applicable to bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis), Bacillus cereus spores and fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger). These inoculated carriers were inserted between two wipes in the original package, which was then re-sealed immediately. The test requires one dry inoculum per packet and one packet for each control or test. After incubation at 22.5 _ C for 1, 2, 7, 14 or 28 days and, for the control, immediately after insertion of the membrane (time 0), microorganism counts were performed on the germ-carrier membranes as well as on adjacent wipes, after transfer into a suitable neutralizing agent. The membranes were shaken in the presence of glass beads and microorganisms were dissociated from the wipes by means of a Stomacher. The supernatants recovered after being left to stand for 20 min are counted by pour plate method or membrane filtration. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated for each of the seven above­ mentioned strains. The repeatability md reproducibility of the results obtained is similar to that obtained for preservative efficacy tests in the Pharmacopoeias. The lethal rate of microorganisms during the preparation of dry inoculums ranges from 50 to 90% depending on the strain and the test (generally, a spontaneous reduction of about 1 log up to a maximum of 2 log). The recovery rate for microorganisms from dry inoculums (on membranes) at time O (control ¼ TO) is around 90%, regardless of the strain or the test. The number of microorganisms recovered from the wipes (WO) is between 2 and 10% of the number recovered from membranes (TO) and may be considered negligible. Application of this method to different types of wipes demonstrates that the efficacy of preservatives, expressed as the logarithmic reduction in the number of microorganisms at each time point, depends on the type of wipe and on the strain tested. The results obtained are considerably different from those found with the standard challenge tests applied to wetting liquids for wipes. The differences found confirm the need for a specific method applicable to wipes. Analysis of hair lipids and tensile properties as a function of distance from scalp L. Duvel*, H. Chun•, D. Deppa* and P. W. Wertz Access Business Group, Ada, MI 49z35, USA and University oflowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA Cuticle cells form the outer covering surrounding and protecting the cortex. The cuticle cells are thin, flat and overlap, and intercellular lipid lamellae are found in the gaps between the cell boundaries. The lipid lamellae are also found within the cortex in the cell boundaries between the long fribrous corticle cells. In addition, the outer surfaces of the cuticle cells are covered by a monolayer of covalently bound fatty acids, a major component of which is 18 methyleicosanoic acid. The fatty acids are thought to be attached through thioester linkages. Together these lipids are thought to be major determinants of the physical properties of the hair. The present study tested the hypothesis that both free and covalently bound lipids are progressively lost during normal environmental exposures. This progressive loss within the cuticle layers may, in part, * These abstracts appear as they were originally published. They have not been edited by the journal �f Cosmetic Science. 333
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