J. Cosmet. Sci., 71, 455–480 (November/December 2020) 455 Application of Biosurfactants and Biopolymers in Sustainable Cosmetic Formulation Design ADELINE M. BENHUR, SAMYUKTA PINGALI, and SAMIUL AMIN , Department of Chemical Engineering, Manhattan College, Bronx, NY (A.M.B., S.P., S.A.) Accepted for publication June 25, 2020 . Synopsis Increased public awareness regarding the ingredients that make up cosmetic and personal care formulations coupled with the growing concern about the dwindling nonrenewable sources from which most cosmetic ingredients like surfactants and polymers are obtained from has led to a strong need to achieve sustainability within the cosmetic industry. It has become the need of the hour to incorporate sustainability at each and every point of the product life cycle. This review focuses on the sustainable sourcing and formulation design of two key cosmetic ingredients—polymers and surfactants. To be able to completely replace their synthetic counterparts, it is crucial that these green products exhibit an effi cacy level at par or greater than that of the products already on the market. Hence, various studies that show the impact of these alternatives on various performance parameters such as fi lm formation and rheology have also been discussed. Being a heavily consumer-driven industry, some of the decisive future trends and challenges that the cosmetic industry needs to address have also been explored in this review. INTRODUCTION Most companies and individuals today are focused on the sustainability of their processes and products. The UN World Commission on Environment and Development defi nes sustainability as “the ability to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” As a result, industries are trying to incorporate sustainability in every aspect of product development. Furthermore, Dimitrova et al. (1) reported that consumers are becoming more environmentally aware and that this growing awareness was changing their buying patterns. They are shifting gears to a more healthy lifestyle for both themselves as well the planet. Chemical processes and products are typically evaluated on the basis of their performance. However, at present, this “performance” solely depends on the primary function of the process or product and does not take into account the dire consequences of the same on the ecological system. Zimmerman et al. (2) in their study call attention to the need for Address all correspondence to Samiul Amin at samin01@manhattan.edu.
JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE 456 redefi ning the term performance to include sustainability. Most organizations have at- tempted to tackle this issue by taking on a reductionist approach wherein the entire product life cycle is broken down into different components and trying to incorporate the concept of green chemistry and engineering into each phase individually. Zimmerman et al. state that this approach is faulty and works by transferring the adverse impacts of a par- ticular phase of the product life cycle to another phase. They emphasize that the hazards and wastes must be eliminated from the system, and this can only be achieved by taking a holistic approach to sustainability—right from ingredient sourcing and production to waste disposal (2). The cosmetic industry too has a major role to play in this context. Valued at nearly $532 billion, the cosmetic industry is rapidly expanding and has become a vital part of the consumers’ life. The beauty and personal care industry is very heavily driven by the con- sumers, making it essential for cosmetic companies to adopt sustainable practices. Green chemistry can help cosmetic scientists and engineers to use sustainable practices while creating new products and processes. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry, fi rst intro- duced by Anastas and Warner (4), comprise a comprehensive construct for the design of new products and processes. These principles are applicable throughout the product life cycle and address the toxicity and biodegradability of the entire process. Therefore, it is crucial that beauty and personal care organizations achieve complete sustainability by adhering to green chemistry principles so as to reduce their ecological footprint and keep up with consumer demands. The product life cycle of a cosmetic product with a sustainable approach is shown in Figure 1. The above fi gure shows that there are several factors that determine the sustainability of any industry. The decisions taken at the design stage have the potential to affect the pro- cesses and routes chosen for the fi nal production. Hence, all decisions must be made keep- ing sustainability in mind. During the sourcing and extraction of raw materials, it is vital to ensure that the ingredients are obtained from green, biodegradable sources and that Figure 1. Sustainability in a product life cycle.
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