ABSTRACTS 389 dermatological availability in the licorice extract containing licochalcone-A as a main principle, Polyol Soluble Licorice Extract P-U,-prepared from the roots of Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin. As a result, this extract showed several activities such as inhibitory actions of testosterone 5 a: -reductase, lipase and phospholipase A2, as well as androgen receptor antagonist, antimicrobial and SOD-like actions, which relate to skin care, especially the suppression of acne formation and development. On basis of this evidence, a trial of Polyol Soluble Licorice Extract P-U with acne patients was carried out and the efficacy was demonstrated clinically. Vol. 37, No. 4, 2003 Mechanisms of the Immune System We Want to Understand Toru Abo Department of Immunology and Medical Zoology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medicine How was the immune system generated in living beings? What pathways were present to reach the developed immune system seen in mammals in phylogeny? If we could answer the above-mentioned questions appropriately, we would easily understand the complex immune system in our body. A Natural Moisturizing Factor, L-2-Pyrrolidone-5- Carboxylic Acid (L-PCA) Enhances Blood Circulation by Modulating Constitutive NO Generation Kazuko Ogasahara, Y oshinobu Takino, Manabu Kitazawa, Kazutami Sakamoto, Yuri Okano, Hitoshi Masaki, Hiroyuki Yasui, Hiromu Sakurai AminoScience Laboratories, Ajinomoto Co., Inc. Department of Analytical and Bioinorganic Chemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University This study revealed a new physiological function of 2- pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid (L-PCA), which enhanced blood circulation by modulating constitutive nitric oxide (NO) generation. It is well know that NO, generated from L-arginine (L-Arg) by catalysis of NO synthase (NOS), plays a key role in the control of vascular tone and peripheral blood flow. We found a dose-dependent enhancement of constitutive NO generation by L-PCA in the human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). In contrast, D-PCA had no influence on NO generation. Furthermore, L-PCA stimulated Arg uptake into HAECs dose-dependently, while D _PCA had no effect as same as NO generation. The L-Arg uptake and its stimulation by L-PCA to HAECs were suppressed with additional of L-NMMA, an inhibitor for the cationic amino acid transporter (CAT). These results indicated that enhancement of NO generation by L-PCA is due to the increase of L-Arg uptake via the CAT pathway. In conclusion, L-PCA was found to enhance blood circulation by modulating constitutive NO generation. Then we confirmed that the occlusive patch test of L-PCA to the volar forearm skin led the redness of skin, and which in tum enhanced the blood flow temporarily. This new function of PCA suggests development of innovative cosmetic products to care for such problematic skin as dark circles under the eyes. Age and Menopause-Related Changes in the Fluorescence of Human Skin Tsutomu Fujimura, Tomoko Hanamoto, Tetsuya Tsugita, Kayoko Iwata Shigeru Moriwaki, Michihiro Hattori, Y oshinori Takema Biological Science Laboratories, Skin Care Laboratories, Kao Corporation The ratio of 390 nm/430 nm fluorescence in the skin induced by 325 nm-excitation light has been used as a marker of photoaging, because that fluorescence ratio in sun-exposed skin decreases with aging. Here, we investigated age and menopause-related changes in the fluorescence of human skin. Test subjects in this study included a juvenile group (age 20-39 yr median 30.1 yr, n=lO), a pre-menopausal group (age 40-59 yr median 50.1 yr, n=l9), and a post-menopausal group (age 40-59 yr median 54.3 yr, n=23). The ratio of 390 nm/430 nm fluorescence intensity was determined from the emission spectra obtained from skin ( cheek and upper inner arm) exposed to 325 nm excitation light. In the check skin, the ratio of fluorescence intensity decreased with age, while no significant change was observed in upper inner arm skin, which is considered a non-solar area. The ratio of fluorescence intensity of the cheek skin in the post-menopausal group was significantly lower than that of the juvenile group, while no significant difference was observed between the juvenile group and the pre-menopausal group. No significant difference was observed in upper inner arm skin. The difference of average age between the pre­ menopausal group and the post-menopausal group was only 4.2 yr. These results suggest that the decrease in female hormones followed by menopause accelerate photoaging of the skin.
390 JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE Investigation on Effective Measures to Alleviate Leg Swelling Hidetaka Akatsuka, Chihoko Kan Hair & Skin Care Products R&D Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc. Sales Planning Div., POLA Cosmetics, Inc. Massage is known to be useful for reducing leg swelling. In the present study, measures to improve the effectiveness of self-massage for the treatment of leg swelling were investigated in an attempt to develop a useful cosmetic product. In ten healthy women with subjective symptoms associated with leg swelling, the degree of swelling was assessed using the water displacement method, and the results showed a 2.5A% increase in leg volume toward the evening. In these women, after five minutes of self-massage and six minutes of hot-cold therapy, the results revealed a 2.5% decrease in leg volume, thus clarifying that this type of therapy does effectively reduce swelling. Consequently, we attempted to develop a cosmetic product based on hot-cold therapy, and it was found that a "cracking foam" product made by mixing a conventional gel agent and a high concentration of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was more effective in alleviating swelling in comparison with the other existing products. A high Performance Hair Treatment to Enhance Hair Strength Based on a Novel Self Cross-Linking Polymer Kazuyuki Miyazawa, Isamu Kaneda, Naomi Iizuka, Toshia Yanaki, Masaaki Uemura Shiseido Research Center The objective of the wok was to develop a novel self cross-linking polymer capable of enhancing hair strength with fast and long-lasting effects. Our initial approach was to synthesize a homopolymer possessing reactive alkoxysilyl groups in order to effect chemical cross-linking of the polymer chains on individual hair fiber after application. Such a cross-linking reaction is accelerated by moisture and heat. This methodology proved to be successful to result in the formation of a film with high durability against repeated shampoos. Furthermore, we improved this initial polymer by incorporating other functional groups. In particular, we prepared copolymers of alkoxysilane and (1) methylmethacrylate, to increase the Tg of the polymer, (2) methyl siloxane units, to increase the flexibility, and (3) trimethylammonium units, to enhance the affinity of the polymer to hair. The quaterpolymer containing these four functional groups in suitable ratios was shown to form rapidly a film coated individual hair fiber as an "artificial cuticle, " improved hair strength without film cracking and smoothed the texture of the hair. The performance of the polymer was evaluated by a bending test to estimate its resilience and the durability against repeated shampoos. Subsequent field tests on human hair confirmed that the formulations containing this polymer succeeded in improving hair manageability and healthy appearance, creating volume, and keeping the hairstyles ideally for an extended time period. Application of Urethane Polymer as a Hair Styling Agent -The Developments and the Properties of Elastic Setting Agents "Polyurethane Dispersion" Takayuki Moure, Tom taka Shiva, Ayumi Saito, Toshihiko Nicene Shiseido Skin Care Products Research Center, Shiseido R&D Division Shiseido Hair Care Product Research Center, Shiseido Material Science Center There are a wide variety of hair styling products with various setting effects. Methyl carboxy betaine/alkyl methacrylate copolymer, vinylpyrrolidone/vinylacetate copolymer, acrylates/ diacetoneacrylamide copolymer, etc., are used as hair setting polymers. These synthetic polymers can form films with the volatilization of water or ethanol on the hair surface. Consumers are divided into two groups in terms of their preference. One group, those who are concerned with a good setting effect, want to use a strong hold type hair styling product which contains a polymer that forms a very hard film. The other group, who also prefer a good setting effect, use a sot hold type to avoid an undesirable hair feeling. A noble polymer named "Polyurethane Dispersion" has been developed for the latter. Polyurethane Dispersion is a self-emulsifying polymer containing a urethane bond in its main chain. Film properties of Polyurethane Dispersion are soft and elastic. Therefore, the polymer can give a high setting effect with a good hair feeling. Furthermore, the polymer also shows a good thickening property and a high humidity tolerance. Polyurethane Dispersion is recognized not only as a good thickner but also as an agent that can yield excellent adhesive and setting properties of hair. A styling mousse and a styling gel with this new Polyurethane Dispersion can result in a long-shelf-life product without stickness or flaking. Polyurethane Dispersion is a new hair setting polymer that can give "natural style" Application of Carboxyl Modified Silicones to Cosmetic Surfactants Kazuki Kageshima, Harumi Sakamoto, Toshiyuki Shimizu Hachiohji Laboratory, Utena Co., Ltd. The application of carboxyl modified silicones as a surfactant was studied. Carboxyl modified silicones, which were neutralized with triethanolamine, were used in this study. The results of a emulsification test of dimethylpolysiloxane indicated that both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions could be prepared by changing carboxyl equivalents. In particular, a high
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