ABSTRACTS 391 internal phase water-in-oil emulsion was formed by using a high-equivalent carhoxyl modified silicone. On the other hand, an aqueous solution of neutralized low­ equivalent carboxyl modified silicone showed good detergency for a spot of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane. These results suggest that carboxyl modified silicones are valuable for cosmetics. Prevention of Color Transfer through Interaction of Over-Coating Film and Pigment Layer Emi Hokao, Kiminori Hirai, Mika Yamashita, Jiro Nakabayashi, Shigeyoshi Momose Product Research Laboratory, Quality Management Section, KOSE Corporation The prevention of color transfer to cups and clothing is very important in lip color products. A common method of minimizing color transfer is to use a film­ forming polymer dissolved in a volatile oil in a lip color formula. However, this approach requires the user to wait several minutes to allow solvent evaporation. The result is often unsatisfactory as color transfer can still take place even after drying. To prevent color transfer effectively without any waiting period, we devised a novel dual approach utilizing over-coating. The first is to reduce the mobility of the lipstick film by a dynamic diffusion of the gelling agent from the over-coating to significantly increase the lipstick film viscosity. This is accomplished by carefully controlling the heat of immersion of the solvent in the over-coating such that its value is lower than that of the lipstick. Secondly, a continuous lipophobic film is formed over the applied lipstick film by allowing a lipophobic materials in the over-coating to penetrate into the lipstick film through dynamic migration. Extensive investigations on solubility and heat of immersion of many lipophobic materials revealed polyperfluoromethylisopropylether (PF) to be the most suitable for this purpose. From our infrared spectroscopy studies, we were able to confirm the dynamic migration of both silica and PF into the underlying applied lipstick film, when incorporated into a protective over-coating. We tested our new approach in practical applications by formulating a novel film­ former designed to be worn over applied lipstick and found that the film provides perfect and immediate long-lasting color protection without a long waiting period after application. The Relationship between Moisture Content and Mechanical Properties of Fingernail (Part 4) Tooru Sugawara Cosmetic Research Laboratories, Kao Corporation It is well known that nail damage such as yellowing, split nails and peeled nails ( onychoschisis) are caused by continuous use of nail enamel for a long period. Within serious nail damage, we investigated how to prevent the appearance of split nails ad peeled nails. The results showed glycolic acid was effective for those kinds of nail damage.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 55, 392-394 (July/August 2004) Abstracts International Journal of Cosmetic Science Vol. 26, No. 2, 2004* Structure and Rheology of Semisolid O/W Creams Containing Cetyl Alcohol/Non-Ionic Surfactant Mixed Emulsifier and Different Polymers between gum of acacia and both the surfactant and the swollen gel network phase, the semisolid properties were probably due to the ability of the gum of acacia to stabilize and thicken the emulsion in the absence of the H.M. Ribeiro, J.A Morais and G.M. Eccleston* swollen lamellar network. Laborat6rio de Dermofarmacia e Cosmetica, Faculdade de Fanruicia da Universidade de Lisboa, Av.das For�as Armadas, 1600 Lisboa (Portugal), *Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Diffusion and Distribution of Element-Labelled Glasgow Gl lXW, U.K. Surfactants in Human Hair Oil in water emulsions for cosmetic use, such as lotions and creams, are complex multiple-phase systems, which may contain a number of interacting surfactants, fatty amphiphiles, polymers and other excipients. This study investigates the influence of two synthetic cationic polymers, Polyquatemium-7 and Polyquaternium-11 and the natural anionic polymer gum of acacia on the rheology and microstructure of creams prepared with a non-ionic mixed emulsifier (cetyl steraryl alcohol- 12EO/cetyl alcohol) using rheology (continuous shear, and viscoelastic creep and oscillation), microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. A control cream containing no pol ym er was also investigated. The semisolid control cream was structured by a swollen lamellar gel network phase formed from the interaction of cetyl alcohol and the POE surfactant, in excess of that required to stabilise oil droplets, with continuous phase water. Endothermic transitions between 25 °C and 100 °C were identified as components of this phase. Incorporation of cationic polymer into the formulation caused significant loss of structure to produce a mobile semisolid containing larger oil droplets. The microscopical and thermal data implied that the cationic pol ym er caused the swollen lamellar gel network phase to transform into non-swollen crystals of cetyl alcohol. In contrast, incorporation of gum of acacia produced a thicker cream than the control, with smaller droplet sizes and little evidence of the gel network. The microscopical and thermal data implied that although there were also interactions F.-J.Wortmann*, M. Gotsche\ H. Schmidt- Lewerkiihnet * DWI - Deutsches W ollforschungsinstitut e. V., Veltmanplatz 8, 52062 Aachen, Germany, t BASF AG, 67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany, t Beiersdorf AG, Unnastr.48, 20253 Hamburg, Germany Presented in parts as paper at the 14Jh DGK Symposium, Hamburg 2001 To directly follow the diffusion process of cosmetically relevant agents into human hair, a specific methodological approach is presented and elucidated for selected surfactants. For this, practically relevant anionic and cationic surfactants were synthesised with a chlorine atom at the end of their alkyl chain. The property changes of the surfactants through the modification are corresponding to an extension of the alkyl chain by about two methylene groups, thus representing a moderate increase of hydrophobicity. After the application of a modified surfactant to hair, it can be localised and quantified through its chlorine atom in cross sections by scanning electron microscopy combined with micro x-ray fluorescence analysis. The determination of the diffusion coefficient D is realized through the application of the Matano-equation to element intensity profiles. Values for D vary within the chosen range of pH and temperature between 10· 14 and 10" 16 m 2 /s. The diffusion coefficients for the anionic surfactants increase with decreasing pH and increasing temperature. The temperature dependence follows in all * These abstracts appear as they were originally published. They have not been edited by the Journal of Cosmetic Science. 392
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