ABSTRACTS 379 lated to the quantity of their interactions. However, these estimates were closely related to the quality of social interactions. The more pleasant subjects thought their fragrances were to others the more satisfaction and intimacy they found in social inter- action and the more confident they felt in interac- tion. The results were similar for men and women. The data suggests that fragrances should be studied as social psychological phenomena in addition to being considered as olfactory stimuli. SESSION D PATHWAYS OF SKIN PENETRATION Biophysical evaluation of the skin's barrier function Russell O. Potts, Ph.D., Pfizer Central Research, Groton, CT The stratum corneum (SC) is the morphologically unique outer layer of the skin that acts as the pri- mary barrier in terrestrial mammals to water loss and the uptake of toxic substances. The techniques of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have been used to evaluate the biophysical properties of the SC. These techniques provide information on both SC protein and lipid structure that can then be correlated with permeability measurements. Re- sults show that temperature-induced changes in water permeability through SC are remarkably sim- ilar to data obtained with lipid bilayers. Spectral results show that changes in the lipid acyl chain conformation are highly correlated with water per- meability. Taken together, these results strongly support the role of SC lipids in barrier function. Furthermore, they provide a mechanistic interpre- tation of permeant transport that is independent of pore formation. Finally, if the lipid biophysics of water transport through SC and lipid bilayers are mechanistically similar, why do the absolute rates differ by over 1000-fold? The answer may be found in the unique morphology of the SC, where corneo- cyte "bricks" may serve to increase the tortuosity of water transport. Polar pathway, transepidermal water loss, and moisturization J. L. Zatz, Ph.D., Department of Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University College of Pharmacy, Pisca- taway, NJ The stratum comeurn has traditionally been envi- sioned as a lipophilic barrier to skin penetration, and this viewpoint is in accord with most measure- ments. However, the slow but finite permeation of polar solutes through the skin, including water it- self, suggests that there may be a special pathway for such molecules. The nature of this pathway has not been definitively identified, but several sugges- tions have been put forth. One is that polar mole- cules are transported via the shunts, such as the hair follicles and sweat gland ducts. Another notion is that spaces between polar head groups of the neutral intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum line up to permit water and other polar molecules to pass between the cells. Higuchi's pore model accounts mathematically for much data, but does not iden- tify the location of the "pores." In recent experi- ments on simultaneous lidocaine and water trans- port through excised, dermatomed human skin, the enhancement of water penetration by surfactants was proportional to lidocaine enhancement. These data suggest that water is not restricted to the polar pathway in the presence of agents that perturb the intercellular lipids. Iontophoresis and sonophoresis•Skin penetra- tion through appendageal pathways? Thomas S. Spencer, Ph.D., Director of Research and Development, Cygnus Research Corporation, Redwood City, CA 94063 Conventional delivery of active materials into and through the skin is based on the driving force of a concentration gradient from the active in a topical formulation to a lower concentration in the dermis. Iontophoresis actively delivers substances across the skin by employing electrical potential energy, while sonophoresis invokes ultrasonic waves to enhance the transport of actives across the skin. Unlike pas- sive diffusion, active transfer of charged and neutral molecules across the skin changes the relative con- tribution of proposed hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and appendageal pathways of penetration. As the cosmetic industry moves towards treatment of skin aging and reversal, rather than concealment, of skin blemishes and discoloration, greater specificity of the area and delivered dose of cosmeceuticals will be needed to normalize different skin conditions.
j. Soc. Cosmet. Chem., 40, 381-384 (November/December 1989) Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists INFORMATION FOR AUTHORS The JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF COSMETIC CHEMISTS publishes papers concerned with cos- metics or the sciences underlying cosmetics, as well as other papers of interest to SCC members. It is the function of the Editorial Committee to set standards, to judge the scientific merit of a paper, and to help in the editing of the paper and its preparation for press. The Editorial Committee is charged with the responsibility for the maintainance of the JOURNAL'S high standards. It is therefore not the policy of the JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF COSMETIC CHEMISTS to guarantee publication of all submitted papers. All papers presented before a meeting or seminar of the SOCIETY OF COSMETIC CHEMISTS or before one of its sections, or those papers submitted directly to the Editor will be considered for publication in the Journal. Papers presented before the SOCIETY OF COSMETIC CHEMISTS or one of its sections are the property of the SOCIETY and may not be published in or submitted to other journals. Only if the JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF COSMETIC CHEMISTS is unable to publish a presented paper may it be published in another journal of the author's choice. SUBJECT MATTER The JOURNAL will consider manuscripts for publication in the following categories, provided they are prepared in proper scientific style and adequately referenced: 1. Original Articles. Descriptions of original research work in cosmetics or related areas. 2. General Articles. Articles of a general character may be considered for publication providing they are of a scientific and technical nature. These articles may be concerned with newer analytical techniques, developments in dermatology, toxicology, etc. 3. Review Articles. Intended to present an overview of recent advances in a specific area related to cosmetics. The author of such a review is expected to be actively engaged in the area and capable of presenting a critical evaluation of published reports of a scientific and technical nature. Solicited by special invitation from the Editor and Editorial Committee not subject to review by the Editorial Committee. 4. Preliminary Communications. Intended to provide for rapid dissemination of novel con- cepts and findings, such articles should not exceed four printed pages (approx. 10 double- spaced typed pages). Subject to review, but the time for editorial action will not exceed three weeks and the manuscripts will be published ahead of those submitted for regular processing. 5. Technical Notes. Relatively short manuscripts containing new information obtained by laboratory investigations, these do not contain the depth or extent of research involved in an Original Article. 6. Letters to the Editor. Comments on JOURNAL articles are invited, as well as brief contri- butions on any aspect of cosmetic or related science that does not warrant publication of a full-length paper in one of our other categories. May include figures and/or references, but brevity is necessary. 381
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