436 JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE Skincare in ancient China. Creams and oils mixed with Chinese herbs are commonly used in modern and traditional skin formulations. By nourishing and hydrating at the cellular level, most herbs protect the skin through their antioxidant action and help minimize wrinkles (32,33). Some of the popular herbs used to protect the skin are: Fu Ling (Sclero- tium poriae cocos) (Tuckahoe) It is a wood-decaying fungus or mushroom. Polysaccharides obtained from this are used in cosmetic preparations. It has an antioxidant property that protects the skin from free radical damage and oxidative stress. Polysaccharide extract has moisturizing benefits (34). Dang Gui (Radix angelicae sinensis) (Tang-Kuei- root) and Bai Zhi (Radix angelicae dahuricae) (Chinese angelica root) help in treating acne. One of the doctors named S. H. Guo has applied Baizhicuokang powder to treat 47 acne patients one time a day. After 6 mo of treatment 36 patients were cured, three patients failed to respond, 16 patients were mended, and the effective rate was 95% no allergic reactions were found (35). Chuanxiong (Radix ligustici Chuan xiong) (Szechaun lovage root) helps in promoting blood circulations (32,33). Plants used as skincare cosmetics are as follows: Ginseng (Panax ginseng) and Paeonia (Paeonia suffruticosa) are most commonly used in China’s personal care and cosmetic market. Ginseng and Paeonia have very good whit- ening actives and antiageing properties. White ginseng is used for whitening the skin (36). Paeonia root bark has antipigmentation ingredients and natural whitening activity (37). Liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is used in skin irritation and preventing acne (38). Recently, the possible use of traditional herbal medicines (THM) to develop modern skincare cosmetics has been underlined (Kiken and Cohen, 2002). Kuo-Hsien Wang et al. experimented to determine the antityrosine effects of traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) used in skincare products (39). The authors picked 25 TCHMs and tested them as a skin-whitening agent for efficacy. They are- Asarum heterotropoides (Manchur wildginger) entire plant used, Lithospermum erythrorhizon (purple gromwell) root, Pharbitis nil (Jap- anese morning glory) - seed, Trichosanthes kirilowii (Chinese cucumber) root, Genti- ana macrophylla root, Elsholtzia ciliate (Vietnamese lemon balm), Leonurus heterophyllus (Chinese motherwort), Agastache rugosa (Korean mint) entire plant, Prunella vulgaris (heal-all) spike, Astragalus membranaceus (Mongolian milkvetch) root, Glycyrrhiza ura- lensis (Chinese liquorice) root and rhizome, Sophora japonica (Chinese scholar tree) flower, Spatholobus suberectus (Caulis spatholobi) stem, Polygonatum odoratum (Solomon’s seal) rhizome, Cannabis sativa (Marijuana) seed, Morus alba (mulberry) leaves, Phy- tolacca acinosa (Indian pokeweed) root, Paeonia suffruticosa (Moutan peony) root bark, Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn) fruit, Prunus persica (peach) seed, Citrus retic- ulate (mandarin orange) pericarp, Dictamnus dasycarpus (Densefruit dittany) root bark, Houttuynia cordata (Chameleon plant) entire plant, and Ampelopsis japonica (peppervine) root, Amornurn villosurn fruit. Collected TCHMs were pulverized with 50% ethanol solution and freeze-dried. Later, the extract was tested for cytotoxicity on human epider- mal melanocyte 12 extracts show low cytotoxicity, i.e., Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Phar- bitis nil, Gentiana macrophylla, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Sophora japonica, Spatholobus suberectus, Polygonatum odoratum, Cannabis sativa, Morus alba, Phytolacca acinosa, Citrus reticulata, and Amornurn villosurn were further examined for tyrosinase and melanin contents in human skin melanocyte. The authors used l-dopa as a substrate to determine tyrosinase inhibi- tor effects. The extracts of Pharbitis nil, Sophora japonica, Spatholobus suberectus, and Morus alba showed potent tyrosinase inhibitor effects. The extract that showed tyrosinase effect does not show dose-dependent inhibition of melanin production. Sophora japonica and
437 HISTORY OF COSMETIC Spatholobus suberectus showed antioxidant and phenolic content. Extracts of Pharbitis nil, Sophora japonica, and Spatholobus suberectus are likely to be useful for cosmetic products and applications (39). The major constituents of Aloe vera (“lu hui”) are Aloin, ρ-coumaric acid, aldopentose, calcium oxalate, and polysaccharides . It is widely used in cosmetic products (40). Aloe vera is used in cosmetics products in concentrations varying from 1% to 98% Aloe vera can be seen in the toiletry and cosmetic industry as a moisturizer. Aloe sugar mixed with essential oil makes an excellent skin smoothening moisturizer, tooth- paste, sun lotion, shaving creams, deodorants, and prevents skin ageing by initiating the synthesis of elastin and collagen (41). FACE CARE AND PLANT USED IN FACE CARE Face care in ancient Egypt. Lucas (1930, p. 44) suggests face painting as the explanation of palettes and stains on stones synonymous with red ochre. These cosmetics contain fats or oils that were possibly used together with unguents (5). Ochre occurs naturally in soil and rocks. Once collected, ochre can be grounded with the help of pestle or mortar and turned into powder and finally mixed with the liquids and turned into paint (42). Egyptian used to color the lips and cheek with lipstick consisting of reed holding a tiny piece of ochre at one end. Rouge lip-gloss was applied with a brush or spatula, consisting of red ochre and fat, probably with a little gull resin. The brush used for applying makeup was made of Salvadora persica tree (43). They used to treat the wrinkles by applying wax- based remedy containing gum, moringa oil (Moringa oleifera), ground Cyprus grass, and fermented juice, which was applied daily. Another recipe to remove wrinkles from the face is the gum of frankincense 1, fresh balarnites oil 1, wax 1, and rush-nut 1, which are grounded and put in the viscous fluid, which was applied every day. Make it and thou shalt see this may found its modern counterpart in a cold cream consisting of white wax, almond oil, borax, and stronger rosewater (44). To treat the spot, the ostrich egg mixed with bullock’s bile and milk was applied (45). Frankincense (individual experience allergic reaction when applied to the skin), acacia, fenugreek, and almond were used to prepare facial cosmetics (46). Honey and bees were important in Egyptian religion (47). Honey was dissolved with milk and used for daily face wash and to make the face smooth (42,48). Honey is composed of fructose and glucose but also contains fructooligosaccharides and amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and enzymes (47). Aromatic resin frankincense from trees of the genus Boswellia (Bursera- ceae) and fresh Moringa olifeira Lam (Moringaceae) were used to fight against wrinkles (16). Face care in ancient India. Indian herbs and their importance are popular worldwide.Some of the plants and herbs used in face care cosmetics are as follows: Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger fam- ily Zingiberaceae. Women apply the turmeric on the cheeks to obtain a natural golden glow. Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) belongs to the family Fabaceae that has antioxidant activity is appropriate for antiwrinkle cosmetics. Indian women were using herbs such as sandalwood for skincare, face packs, and masks from the olden days (19,20). Face and nail care in ancient China. Chinese people used to stain their fingernails with gelatine, egg, and beeswax (1). Ceruse was made in China its ancient and common name is hu-fen in China. Under the rule of the T’ang emperors, the Chinese used ceruse face
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