438 JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE powder, which was accurately demonstrated by Harada, who observed that it was applied to the face and breast (49). Turmeric was used in China as a coloring material. Antioxi- dants in turmeric protect the skin cells from free radical damage. It is used for the treat- ment of acne, facial photo ageing, etc. (20). Perfumes Perfumes in ancient Egypt. Kyphi is compound incense, a very popular Egyptian fragrance, which means “welcome to the Gods” (1). Kyphi is the best-known perfume of Egypt. It was made of 16 ingredients: cyperus, resin, myrrh, aspalatus, seselis, bitumen, mastich, rush, sorrel, cardamom, frankincense, and calamus. Ingredients were listed in the pyramid texts. Kyphi was a prized blend of incense in Egypt for its medical effects. The common resin used for making kyphi pellets was benzoin, which is a balsamic resin, a dried exudation from ben- zoin tree bark, used because of its fragrance (50). Incense is made up of aromatic material that produces scent, consists of 21% (by weight) of herbal and wood powder, 35% of fragrance material, 11% of adhesive powder, and 33% of the bamboo stick. Aromatic materials used to prepare incense were resins, barks, seeds, and flowers (51). Myrrh, incense, and cinnamon were used for deodorant preparations (27). Deodorant body rubs were made of an ostrich egg and tortoise shell roasted with gallnut from tamarisk tree (52). Perfumes in ancient India. India was famous for using itra (similar to modern scent), made in sandalwood base, which was used during festivals, and its manufacturing process includes the collection, extraction, blending, and ageing of scent, which takes too much time for preparation (1). The most commonly used perfume was made from sandalwoods (Santalum album) to give a long-lasting odor (8). Perfumes in ancient China. The Chinese used one word, i.e., heang, to represent fragrance, incense, and perfume. Heang was divided into six aesthetic moods: Tranquil, luxurious, beautiful, reclusive, refined, or noble (Keville, Green). China imported jasmine-scented sesame oil from India Persian rosewater via the silk route, Indonesian aromatics such as ginger (Zingiber officinale), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), gum benzoin, and patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) via India (1). Hygiene Hygiene in ancient Egypt. Egyptians used to freshen the breath by chewing the pallets made of tamarisk leaves (1). Instead of soap, they were using body scrubs of salt, honey, and natron for cleansing. Water and natron were used to wash the mouth. Natron, a chemical composition of two parts of sodium carbonate 10-hydrate and one part of salt, removes moisture from the body quickly and breaks down fatty tissues (46). The mixture of mint, pepper, rock salt, and dried iris flower was used to prepare toothpaste. Chewing the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae) boosts their breath (16), and chewing the herbs “frank- incense” and “anise” improves the odor of mouth (46). The Aryan period witnessed the use of turmeric (Haridra), agaru (Agarwood is a fragrant tree), alkanet (Ratanjot), chloro- phyll green (from nettle plants), and indigo (genus Indigofera, a flowering plant) for body decorations, and chandan for beautifications (53). The ancient Egyptians first produced a dental cream around 3000–5000 BCE containing powdered ashes from oxen hooves, eggshells, myrrh, and pumice mainly to remove debris from the teeth (54).
439 HISTORY OF COSMETIC Hygiene in ancient India. In the olden days, Indian women did not use soaps but instead used a combination of grams of wheat husk flour combined with milk and turmeric ger- micidal creams. Wheat husk helps to remove dead cell tissues. Bathing cosmetic ubton is widely used in India even today (1). Ubton is a blend of Cicer arietinum (chickpea, a grain legume cultivated for its edible seeds), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and Santalum album (Indian sandalwood) used primarily for skin lightening and sun-protective properties (55). Betel leaves were used for darkening the lips. Saffron, agar, and chlorophyll green from nettle plants and indigo were used in body decorations (29). Hygiene in ancient China. Around 1600 BCE, the Chinese were using twigs of the aromatic tree as a toothbrush and therefore freshened the mouth, as well as cleaning it. The first toothbrush was invented in China in CE1000, which had an ivory handle and bristles made from horse’s mane. The first bristle toothbrush was also invented from China, which was made from hairs of the Siberian wild boar, which were fixed to a bamboo or bone handle (56). Chinese were using a detergent for bathing and cleaning, not soaps from ancient history. They were using tooth powder/toothpaste for cleaning their teeth. Major ingredients of tooth powder were ginseng, herbal mints, and salt (54). Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) TCM is a clinical and evidence-based medical system that is used to treat various diseases it has a history of more than 2,000 years in East Asian country. TCM mineral and herbal products are believed to be toxic but are still prescribed in the clinic (57). Nowadays TCM is used in dermatological related disorders and in atopic eczema, which proved resistant to orthodox treatment. The popularity of TCM produced fear about its uncer- tainty and toxicity about the ingredients. TCM natural products include material origi- nated from animal, mineral sources, and scientifically it is impossible to determine which component shows synergic effects or antagonistic actions (58). Due to the absence of its systemic pharmacology and toxicology assessment, TCM is not approved as a medicine in the Western countries. Nowadays most doctors and scientists are involved in investi- gating the toxicity and pharmacology of the TCM. TCM processing is a pharmaceutical system that transfers the raw material into a form that can be used in decoctions via the use of various adjuvants, such as vinegar, honey. TCM processing makes a major contribu- tion to the transition in chemical profile and the improvement in pharmacological effects and toxicity of TCM products (57). CONCLUSION Cosmetics are products that help in presenting and increasing the personality, beauty of human beings that has both medicinal and practical uses. The ancient science of cos- metology was founded in India and Egypt, but the earliest records of cosmetics and their application date back to the Indus Valley civilization, around 2500 and 1550 BCE. Ancient Egyptians started using cosmetics around 3500 BCE. Cosmetics alone are not sufficient to take care of the skin. It requires other ingredients to check the property of the skin. Plants and herbs have been used in cosmetic preparation since ancient times for simple remedies. Herbs that are used in China for cosmetics are widespread and these are biologically active for today’s cosmetics. The most commonly used herbs in India
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