434 JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE with one of the liquids including water, lemon juice, strong tea, etc., and made into a paste and applied to the hair, nails, and palm for coloring (5). As early as 10,000 BCE in Egypt, both men and women were using dyes and paints to color the hair, skin, and body (1). The dye is a natural or synthetic substance used to impart color, with Chromosphere (responsible for the coloring) as the major component (15). The mixture of resin and beeswax was used to treat baldness and greying hairs (16). Hair care in ancient India. Indians were using henna since the 4th or 5th centuries, in the art of mehandi or as a hair dye, especially before Hindu wedding (3). The art of applying henna to feet and hand is known as mehandi (17). Mehandi is derived from the Sanskrit word “mendhikā” while henna owes its origin to the Arabic name for “Lawsonia inermis” Hina (18). Henna is obtained from the Lawsonia inermis plant family Lythraceae, which contains Lawsone, a dye molecule. Henna is related to the hair proteins that tend to stain the color of the hair (19,20). Leaves of henna were dried and ground into a powder, mixed with one of the liquids, including water, lemon juice, strong tea, etc., and made into a paste and applied to the hair, nails, and palm, etc. (18). Some of the plants used as hair cosmetics are: Reetha powder (Soapnut): Used for natural hair and body cleanser. Soapnut powder is also used to make a body exfoliant. Shikakai (Acacia concinna): In the olden days, women were using the pod-like fruit to clean the hair. It is considered a superior cleanser for long hair and preventing dandruff and helps to promote hair growth. Amla (Emblica officinalis): It is rich in Vitamin C, with the help of seeds and pulp, oil is extracted and used for the treatment of hair and scalp problems. Amla contains essential fatty acids that strengthen hair follicles (19,21). Calcium and tannins present in amla prevent hair from photodamage. Tannins are phenolic compounds that bind to keratin proteins of hair and prevent them from breaking (22). Brahmi (Centella asiatica) contains sterols, flavonol, essential oils, glycoside, saponins, and triterpenoid, which is used for hair care formulations. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus): Oil contains mainly cineole and a lesser amount of vol- atile aldehyde, terpenes, phenol, and alcohol. It shows very good results in scruff and chafes dandruff. Gurhal (Hibiscus rosa sinensis): Hibiscus petal is used to stimulate thicker hair growth and to prevent hair loss, premature greying, and scalp disorders. Petals extract acts as a natu- ral hair conditioner and can be used in hair washes. Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi): Jatamansi rhizomes are used in hair tonic preparations to encourage hair growth and to enhance blackness in hair. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum): Fenugreek seeds are used to prepare hair care for- mulations, which help in hair growth, cure dandruff, and keep hair silky (23). One of the experiments conducted by the authors Gholamreza Dehghan Noudeh, et al. found that fenugreek seed helps in preventing hair loss and retain hair conditioning. Fenugreek seeds were extracted with 50% ethanol, freeze-dried, and processed in the fridge using the maceration process. Foam formation, pH, viscosity, conditioning, and wettability have been evaluated after the preparation of the formulation. The pH of formulated shampoo was found to be 6.6 this was shown to have high stability and foam due to the presence of saponin in fenugreek extract. The pH of formulated shampoo in the normal range was
435 HISTORY OF COSMETIC found to be 6 to 8. The formulation has also shown thixotropic, foaming property, and viscosity. The wetting effect of shampoo was taken as 5 min (24). Neem (Azadirachta indica): Neem oil is obtained from the seed, kernel, and leaves of neem, which is used as an antidandruff agent and hair tonic (23). Oat (Avena sativa): Oat oil is lightly coloured, which is rich with glycolipids (polar lip- ids), as well as phospholipids, and free from fatty acids (Trans). The oil improves the elasticity of hair and skin. In skin and hair formulation, a 1–5% concentration is recom- mended (25). Hair care in ancient China. Chinese people were using henna dyes to stain their hair (1). SKINCARE AND PLANTS USED IN SKINCARE PREPARATIONS Skincare in ancient Egypt. In ancient Egypt, appearance and personal health were of tre- mendous importance. The Egyptian climate required the moisturizing properties of fats and oils that could be used to produce fragrant salves or to produce cleaning agents mixed with ash and natron (26). Egyptians were using cleansing cream, which was made with animal oil or with vegetable oil mixed with lime powder. Scented ointments and oil were used to mask body odor and soften their skin (1). The most commonly used cosmetic material for hair and body were malachite, PbS, and galena, which was found in graves, stains on palettes, and stones on which they were ground for use (Lucas, 1930) (5). The word ‘malachite’ reflects the leaves green color of the plant family Malvaceae (7). The trendy skin color was black, obtained by applying a piece of linen to the neck, face and arms dipped in a yellow ochre suspension in water (8). Crushed lotus flower and oil from papyrus, honey were used for removing scars and marks from the skin (27). Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), myrrh thyme (Thymus L.), lavender (Lavandula L.), chamomile (Matricaria L.), lily (Liliaceae), peppermint (Mentha L.), cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich), rose (Rosa L.), aloe (Aloe barbadensis Mill.), and olive (Olea europaea L.), almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) were the ingredients used in the preparation of oil and creams to protect from the sun and wind (28). Skincare in ancient India. In the ancient period, a paste of Anjana (ayurvedic herbal col- lyrium) and Yastimadhu (Liquorice) was used externally as a cosmetic for cooling effect. During the Mahabharata period, the fragrant powder was used for the face and body (10). Indian women were using sandalwood and turmeric for skincare (29). Aloe vera is used for cleansing purges for the body or skin and sunburn. Aloe vera inhibits the cyclooxygenase pathway and reduces prostaglandin E2 production from arachidonic acid. It is used in the form of soothing gels (20,21). Saffron is considered to be a beneficial herb for cleansing the skin by Indian physician Charaka. Herbs are used in cosmetics for the preparation of fairness cream, antiblemish lotions, and cleanser (30). Marigold (Calen- dula officinalis) is known as pot marigold. Ingredients of the flower are used for cosmetic, personal care products, skincare, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic cream. Oat (Avena sativa): Oat oil is rich in essential fatty acids, antioxidants, and natural emollients, which are used in lotions, creams, facial oils, salves, and balms (31). Colloidal oatmeal formu- lation increases the moisturizing properties of skincare lotions and creams. The phenolic compound present in oil protects against ultraviolet light and provides anti-inflamma- tory and antioxidant properties. Phospholipids provide buffer and moistening activities, whereas saponins provide cleansing activity (25).
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