383 SKIN PERMEATION OF HAZARDOUS COMPOUNDS ABSORPTION STUDIES IN THE SIMULATION CHAMBER In vitro dermal absorption studies were performed using modified vertical diffusion cells, following the Franz method (24,25). The atmosphere of the simulation cham- ber acted as donor compartment, while 12 mL saline solution, containing 0.9% (w/v) NaCl and 0.15 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), was the receptor solution. Temperature was maintained at 25°C by control of the room temperature. Chamber temperature, B Smoking machine A Simulation chamber Figure 1. Scheme of (A) the developed exposition chamber and (B) smoking machine used to perform ­ dermal absorption studies of hazardous organic compounds from cigarette smoke.
384 JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE humidity, and PM and VOC concentration inside the simulation chamber were con- tinuously monitored during all the experiments. Receptor solutions were continuously stirred using Teflon-coated magnetic stirrers. Strat-M® membranes (14 mm diameter, being the exposed surface of 0.7 cm2) were used in the modified vertical diffusion cells as skin simulants (26). Effectiveness of the antipollution cosmetics was evaluated by homogeneously applying 2 mg product per cm2 exposed membrane, being this side of the membrane in contact to the contaminated atmosphere. Control experiments were performed with the Strat-M® membrane at the same conditions without cosmetic application. The amount of hazard- ous organic compounds present in the membrane and receptor solutions were determined after different exposure times. DETERMINATION OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM ­ CIGARETTES IN THE SIMULATION CHAMBER The concentration of hazardous organic compounds inside the chamber was measured by active sampling using a low-volume personal air sampling TUFF Standard from Casella measurements (Bedford, UK), operating with a low flow adaptor at a flow rate of 40 mL min−1 for 5 min. Glass thermal desorber (TD) tubes, capped with perfluoroalkoxy-polytet- rafluoroethylene (PFA-PTFE) ferrules, were obtained from Perkin Elmer (Waltham, MA). TD tubes were filled with 150 mg of Tenax TA (35–60 mesh) provided by Alltech (Selms- dorf, Germany). Tenax was conditioned prior to sampling at 300°C during 2 h. Active sampling pump flow was regulated using an ADM calibrated flowmeter (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA) before each sampling. After sampling, tubes were capped with PFA-PTFE ferrules and stored at −20°C until analysis. TD tubes were thermally desorbed using a Turbo Matrix series TD from Perkin Elmer coupled to a Trace GC-Polaris Q gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detector from Finnigan (Waltham, MA), equipped with an Agilent HP-5MS capillary column (30 m, 0.25 mm, 0.25 μm). Thermal desorption was carried out at 260°C for 20 min using a 75 mL min−1 helium flow rate and desorbed analytes were transferred to a Tenax cold trap at −10°C. A quick trap desorption was carried out at 270°C at 99°C s−1 and the analytes were desorbed and directly transferred to the chromatographic column, using a transfer line set at 275°C, with a helium constant flow of 0.8 mL min−1 and a split flow of 1:15. GC temperature program was 40°C, held for 8 min, increased at rate of 20°C min−1 up to 200°C, and held for 2 min. MS ion source and transfer line temperatures were set at 300°C and 250°C, respectively. Full scan acquisitions were performed using a mass range from 50 to 200 m/z. Calibration curve was prepared in Tenax packed TD tubes spiked with 10 μL target ana- lytes standard prepared in acetone, with a final added amount from 0.1 to 4.0 μg. Addi- tionally, 10 µL toluene-d 8 internal standard solution (10 mg L−1 in acetone) was added inside the Tenax tube. Table II shows m/z ions, retention time, and analytical features of studied compounds. For the analysis of hazardous organic compounds absorbed in the synthetic membrane, a similar procedure was used introducing in TD tubes 25 mg of Strat-M® membrane. Calibration curves were prepared in TD tubes loaded with 25 mg of Strat-M® membrane and spiked with 10 μL target analytes standard prepared in acetone, with a final added amount from 0.1 to 4.0 μg. Additionally, 10 µL toluene-d 8 internal standard solution (10 mg L−1 in acetone) was added.
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