381 SKIN PERMEATION OF HAZARDOUS COMPOUNDS Table I Composition of Cosmetic Products Evaluated Cosmetic A Cosmetic B Cosmetic C Water (% w/w) 60–65 50–60 70–75 Silicones (% w/w) 3.0 6.8 2.0 Dimethicone 1.0–3.0 5.0–6.0 2.0 Polysilicone 0.8 Dimethicone-vinyl dimethicone crosspolymer 0.3 Polymers including surfactants (% w/w) 3.8 6.6 6.3 Acrylates 0.3 0.7 Stearates 1.20 4.5 4.0 Carbomers 0.15 0.3 Polyisobutene 0.5 0.5 Others 1.8 0.75 2.0 Emollients (% w/w) 9.6 12.4 8.4 Ethylhexyl isononanoate 2.0 4.0 Dicaprylyl carbonate 3.0 4.0 Caprylyl glycol 2.0 0.1–0.3 Ethylhexyl olivate 2–2.5 Olive oil unsaponifiables 0.1–0.4 Cetearyl alcohol 1.45 2.0 Myristyl myristate 0.5 Collagen 0.1–0.5 Squalane 2.5 Palmitic acid 0.5 Others 1.15 2.64 1.65 Glycerine (% w/w) 5.0–10.0 5.0–10.0 5.0–10.0 UV filters (% w/w) 4.0 10.0 0.0 Ethylhexyl triazone 1.5–3.5 1.5–3.5 Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane 1.5–3.5 2.0–4.0 Octocrylene 4.0–7.0 Fillers (% w/w) 0.5–1.0 1.0 1.0–3.0 Talc 0.4–0.5 1 0 Mica 0.2–0.4 0 0 Silica 0 0 0.4 Silicates 0 0 2.2 Antioxidants (% w/w) 0.7 0.8 0.8 Xanthan gum (% w/w) 0.0005 0.0025 0.014 Others (% w/w) 5.0–6.0 Dunaliella salina extract Acmella oleracea extract Gossypium herbaceum callus culture Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract 1.5–3.0 Gossypium herbaceum callus culture 1.0–3.0 Caesalpina spinosa fruit extract Kappaphycus alvarezii extract Lycium barbarum callus culture extract Gossypium herbaceum callus culture
382 JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE Antipollution cosmetic B is also a rich texture cream (viscous emulsion) that welfares and protects the skin against external agents such as contamination, sun radiation ­ (infrared, UV, and blue light) and antioxidant agents, increasing skin firmness and ­elasticity while intensely moisturizing. These properties for treating and preventing adverse ­ environmental effects are provided by its combination of active principles including, vitamin C, peptides (carnosine and oligopeptide-1), alantoine, pantenol, and bioactive molecules from stem cells from cotton. Antipollution cosmetic C is a lifting cream remodelling facial oval (viscous emul- sion) that welfares and protects the skin against external agents, increasing skin firmness and elasticity. These properties for treating and preventing adverse envi- ronmental effects are provided by its combination of active principles including, hydrolyzed collagen, and bioactive molecules from stem cells from cotton and Lycium barbarum and plant and algae extracts including Caesalpinia spinosa fruit and Kappa- phycus alvarezii. SIMULATION CHAMBER A specifically modified closed enclosure model HZ08252, with 640 L internal volume, from Bruker (Billerica, MA) was used as simulation chamber (see Figure 1). Clean air was introduced at 2.0 L min−1 in the simulation chamber using a MPB1200 rotameter from MPB Industries (Kent, UK), calibrated by a high-volume bubble flowmeter. Two fans with vibration-dampening rubber corners, placed inside the chamber, assured air homogeneity. The simulation chamber was placed in a 50 m3 closed room, with con- trolled temperature (25°C ± 1°C) and a fume hood system to avoid operator exposure to hazardous organic compounds from cigarette smoke. Air monitoring devices were placed inside the simulation chamber to control air quality. An airflow multi-function anemometer TA465-P from TSI (Shoreview, MN), equipped with infrared spectroscopy technology, was used to measure CO 2 , CO concentration, tem- perature, and relative humidity. A CEL-712 Microdust Pro from Casella Cel (Kempston, UK) with a photoelectric sensor was employed to determine the concentration of par- ticulate materials (PM) suspended in air. An Airy Technology P311 (Stoughton, MA) equipped with laser particle counter was used to determine PM in terms of amount of different size particles and a PhoCheck Tiger from Ion Science (Laubach, Germany) to determine VOCs based on the use of a photo-ionization detector. All devices were previ- ously calibrated and employed after stabilization. SMOKING MACHINE Smoking machine was built using a Laboports mini diaphragm vacuum pump, from VWR International (Radnor, PA), operating at 5.5 L min−1 flow rate. Vacuum pump was connected to three cigarettes using silicone tubing (10 mm internal diameter) and three-way hose fittings (see Figure 1). Inhaled smoke was flowed through a vacuum trap and reintroduced in the chamber. For dermal absorption experiments in finite conditions, the smoking machine was turned on and three cigarettes were simultaneously lighted up. Cigarettes were completely consumed after 10 min, providing a maximum exposure time of 40 min. On the other hand, for dermal absorption experiments in infinite conditions, three cigarettes were simultaneously smoked every 30 min, being 8 h the maximum exposure time.
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